As relationship marketing research evolved, a number of key constructs emerged. Some scholars have argued that these constructs are not conceptually or empirically distinct. We investigate this phenomenon based on the premise that sustained research effort towards studying conceptually overlapping/redundant constructs, while treating them as independent, can hamper the development of the field. We use prototyping, a method adopted from psychology, to examine consumers’ views of these constructs, and then identify relationship contexts where constructs are distinct or redundant. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Medlej, Maroun, Stuban, Steven M. F., and Dever, Jason R.
Defense Acquisition Research Journal: A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Oct2017, Vol. 24 Issue 4, p626-655. 30p.
Systems engineering, Rapid prototyping, Defense industries, Manufacturing processes, and Likelihood ratio tests
In 2007, John Young, then-Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, mandated the use of "competitive prototyping" strategies in defense acquisition. Further, Department of Defense Instruction 5000.02 includes considerations for prototyping in the acquisition strategy. A 2017 memorandum circulated by Young lists five prototyping benefits, which are expected to "reduce technical risk, validate designs, validate cost estimates, evaluate manufacturing processes, and refine requirements." However, a process to assess whether, and to what extent, a prototype will be or has been successful in achieving these benefits is not currently in use by the Department of Defense. Because cost increases and schedule extension downsides are inherent in prototyping, such an assessment is critical. This research proposes an approach for assessing the likelihood of achieving expected prototyping benefits based on identifying the factors yielding these benefits as well as their relative weights. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Plouffe, Christopher R., Nagel, Duane, Bonney, Leff, Hochstein, Bryan, and Salas, Jim
Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice. Winter2020, Vol. 28 Issue 1, p79-97. 19p. 2 Charts.
Customer cocreation, Business enterprises, and Value chains
We develop a conceptual framework that examines the behavior of the solutions-oriented-firm from initial solutions generation, through the "sale" and delivery to an initial customer, and its potential dissemination to the broader marketplace as a more standardized product/service offering. Particular attention is paid to the emerging discussion of value co-creation and Service-Dominant logic. Key tenets of the Austrian School of Economics are leveraged to identify how the selling firm, sales employee, and buying firm co-create value, and the "solution" itself. Thus, providing a deeper understanding of the "end-to-end" value chain of activities and drivers of firm performance. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Hardgrave, Bill C., Wilson, Rick L., and Eastman, Ken
Journal of Management Information Systems. Fall1999, Vol. 16 Issue 2, p113-136. 24p. 1 Diagram, 9 Charts, 4 Graphs.
Information resources management, Rapid prototyping, Industrial surveys, Computer software developers, Systems design, Organization, Contingency theory (Management), Management science, Systems development, Empirical research, Prototypes, and Computer systems
Many proposed contingencies regarding the conditions when the use of prototyping will lead to successful system development appear in the literature. Using an industry survey, this exploratory study empirically investigates the effect of certain contingencies on system success. Overall, results indicate that five variables, when combined with prototyping, affect system success (as indicated by user satisfaction): innovativeness of the project, impact of the system on the organization, user participation, number of users, and developer experience with prototyping. These results provide some insight into the proper uses of prototyping to improve system success. The results also indicate that several of the current contingencies, if followed, do not ensure high levels of system success. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Target costing, Prototypes, Product design, Rapid prototyping, and Suppliers
Prototyping allows firms to evaluate the technical feasibility of alternative product designs and to better estimate their costs. We study a collaborative prototyping scenario in which a manufacturer involves a supplier in the prototyping process by letting the supplier make detailed design choices for critical components and provide prototypes for testing. While the supplier can obtain private information about the costs, the manufacturer uses target costing to gain control over the design choice. We show that involving the supplier in the prototyping process has an important influence on the manufacturer's optimal decisions. The collaboration results in information asymmetry, which makes parallel prototyping less attractive and potentially reverses the optimal testing sequence under sequential prototyping: It may be optimal to test designs in increasing order of attractiveness to avoid that the supplier does not release technically and economically feasible prototypes for strategic reasons. We also find that the classical target costing approaches (cost‐ and market‐based) need to be adjusted in the presence of alternative designs: Due to the strategic behavior of suppliers, it is not always optimal to provide identical target costs for designs with similar cost and performance estimates, nor to provide different target costs for dissimilar designs. Furthermore, the timing is important: While committing upfront to carefully chosen target costs reduces the supplier's strategic behavior, in some circumstances, the manufacturer can take advantage of this behavior by remaining flexible and specifying the second prototype's target costs later. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
International Journal of Production Research. 1/1/2005, Vol. 43 Issue 1, p169-194. 26p. 7 Black and White Photographs, 5 Diagrams, 10 Charts.
Rapid prototyping, Management information systems, Decision support systems, Prototypes, and Production engineering
A new method is proposed for selecting the most appropriate rapid prototyping process according to user's specific requirements by using the expert system and fuzzy synthetic evaluation. The selection process is divided into two stages. First, it is necessary to generate feasible alternatives, which are executed under the expert system environment. Second, given those feasible alternatives, the fuzzy synthetic evaluation approach is employed to produce a ranking order of the alternatives and to finalize the most suirapid prototyping system. One distinctive characteristic of this method is that quantitative as well as qualitative measures are employed, providing more accurate results. The decision system developed based on the proposed method is composed of four modules: a database to store the specifications of various rapid prototyping processes; a knowledge-based expert system for determining the feasible alternatives; a fuzzy synthetic evaluation model to select the most suitable rapid prototyping process; and a user interface and an expert interface to interact with the system. The fuzzy synthetic evaluation approach used in the system is illustrated in detail by a numerical example. Furthermore, a Java-enabled solution, together with web techniques, is employed for developing such a networked decision support system. Finally, two examples of rapid prototyping process selection are designed to demonstrate the application of the system. The system has been implemented and can run at a rapid prototyping and manufacturing networked service platform that the authors have developed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
A direct-slicing approach might improve the accuracy and quality of small, complex parts produced with rapid prototyping technology. An application software based on direct slicing for rapid prototyping was used on the foundation of PowerSHAPE models. Lines, conic arcs and cubic bezier curves were adopted as the basic elements describing the direct-slicing contours. Moreover, a scheme to carry out subdivided software development was proposed. A picture (PIC) format file was selected as an interface for the slicing data, and a macro-AutoSection software, which collects the direct-slicing contour data of arbitrary complex computer-aided design models and provides power to produce the direct-slicing PIC files, was developed. On the above basis, an application software called PDSlice based on direct-slicing data processing was developed for the commercial selective laser sintering machine HRPS-III, which was made at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), P. R. China. The major input and output interfaces as well as the PIC model reconstruction method of the PDSlice are described. Furthermore, a batch of direct-slicing polymer parts were successfully fabricated with the selective laser sintering machine. The application example shows that the accuracy and surface finish of three-dimensional complex curvature surface parts fabricated with the application software system based on a direct-slicing format were better than the application software system based on a stereolithography (STL) format. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
International Journal of Production Research. Nov2008, Vol. 46 Issue 22, p6431-6460. 30p. 15 Diagrams, 8 Charts, 1 Graph.
Prototypes, Rapid prototyping, Computer integrated manufacturing systems, Industrial engineering, Mathematical models, Production planning, Computer-aided process planning, New product development, Concurrent engineering, Programming languages, C (Computer program language), Job analysis, and Manufacturing process automation
This paper presents a generative process planning system for parts produced by the rapid prototyping process (i.e. fused deposition modelling-FDM). The proposed process planning involves optimal selection of orientating the model with a proper support structure and then provides an intelligent slicing methodology, such as direct or adaptive, to minimise the built up time, keeping the geometry and cusp height errors in control. Pre- and post-slicing processes have been used to minimise the sliced data error. The Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) model has been arranged into five modules: orientation, support structure generation, slicing, path planning and Numerical Control (NC) program generation, and model build up. The CAPP model has been implemented in C language having a unique methodology consisting of 42 simplified steps. The CAPP model has been tested for several examples and shows satisfactory results. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
International Journal of Production Research. 1/20/2002, Vol. 40 Issue 2, p293-310. 18p. 16 Diagrams.
Rapid prototyping, Computer-aided design, Prototypes, Finite element method, CAD/CAM systems, and Lithography
Rapid prototyping (RP) is an emerging, non-traditional fabrication method and has been recognized as a valid tool to shorten the lead-time from design to manufacture effectively. Most of the current RP systems adopt the triangular meshes of stereolithoraphy (STL) as a standard format for data input. Thus, the construction of triangular meshes directly affects the quality of RP parts and their subsequent processes. Traditionally, STL data are output from 3D CAD models built using commercial 3D CAD/CAM software packages. This study, however, differs from the traditional way in that it generates the STL data directly from scanned 3D data points, thus preventing various problems associated with 3D CAD modelling from a large quantity of data points. Specific tasks involved in this study include: (1) development of the methodology to convert massive data points into numerous, connected triangular meshes, (2) determination of unit normal vector for each triangular mesh facet, (3) output of triangular meshes with normal vectors in STL format, and (4) slicing of triangular-mesh model into a series of 2D sections. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The geometric description used to represent solid objects significantly affects the accuracy and quality of the final parts produced with rapid prototyping (RP) technology. This paper discusses the alternative method of adaptive direct slicing for RP. Direct slicing generates precise contours for each layer from the solid model and avoids an intermediate representation. Adaptive slicing modifies the layer thickness to take into account the curvature of the surface of the solid model in the vertical direction, to alleviate the staircase effect, and to decrease the number of layers. Thereby, adaptive direct slicing potentially enables part fabrication with higher accuracy and production efficiency. This paper presents a new, practical approach to adaptive direct slicing based on the area deviation ratio. The slicing strategy and algorithm are also described. The corresponding procedure was implemented and tested on Windows 95/98 and NT 4.0 with AutoCAD R14. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]