Rapid prototyping, Decision making, Analytic hierarchy process, Grey relational analysis, Fuzzy numbers, and Strength of materials
A multitude of rapid prototyping (RP) systems and technologies have come up since the introduction of additive process. Owing to the enlarging number of these systems with distinctive efficacy, the problem of selecting an appropriate system for a particular requirement is a cumbersome task. Henceforth, this work comes up with a strategy based on multi-attribute decision making to select a most suitable RP system. The presence of subjectivity in decision making as well as the existence of imprecision from various sources emphasize the methods which must consider uncertainty and vagueness. A decision advisor based on uncertainty theories, including fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) and grey relational analysis (GRA) has been introduced. It provides a comprehensive database comprising thirty nine commercially available RP systems. The evaluation attributes consisting of machine cost, accuracy, layer thickness, machine speed, material cost, net build size volume, machine weight, surface roughness, and material strength were utilized to characterize the different machines. The FAHP based on trapezoidal fuzzy number was implemented to determine the priority weights of various attributes, while the GRA was employed to realize the best RP system and technology. The authors believe that this system has the potential to transform into a fully developed RP selection system. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Wireless power transmission, Rapid prototyping, Radio frequency, Gold coatings, and Stainless steel
This article presents an electromagnetically powered stent designed for hyperthermia treatment of in-stent restenosis. The stent device based on medical-grade stainless steel serves as a radio frequency (RF) inductive receiver to produce mild heating wirelessly through resonant-coupling power transfer, while acting as a mechanical scaffold inside an artery similar to commercial stents. The device and its custom transmitter are prototyped and optimized to show efficient wireless power transfer and stent heating through in vitro tests. The inductive stent with its helical pattern is gold coated to achieve a $3.5\times $ higher quality ($Q$) factor, improving heating performance of the device. The combinational use of independent resonant antennas with the power antenna is found to significantly boost stent temperature by up to 96% with an intermediate tissue layer. Upon matching the frequencies at which the $Q$ factors of the inductive stent, power antenna, and booster antenna are peaked, the stent excited through 10 mm-thick tissue exhibits a temperature increase of 18 °C, well over a necessary level for targeted hyperthermia treatment. The prototype achieves heating efficiencies (HEs) of 15.5–3.2 °C/W with a tissue thickness of 5–15 mm. These results indicate that the proposed resonant-heating stent system with the prototyped transmitter is promising for further development toward its clinical application. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
TRASTUZUMAB, DOCETAXEL, RAPID prototyping, IMMUNOGLOBULINS, NANOPARTICLES, and FLOW cytometry
Developing targeted nanoparticles is a rising strategy to improve drug delivery in oncology. Antibodies are the most commonly used targeting agents. However, determination of their optimal number at the surface remains a challenging issue, mainly due to the difficulties in measuring precisely surface coating levels when prototyping nanoparticles. We developed an original quantitative assay to measure the exact number of coated antibodies per nanoparticle. Using flow cytometry optimized for submicron particle analysis and beads covered with known amounts of human IgG-kappa mimicking various amounts of antibodies, this new method was tested as part of the prototyping of docetaxel liposomes coated with trastuzumab against Her2+ breast cancer. This quantification method allowed to discriminate various batches of immunoliposomes depending on their trastuzumab density on nanoparticle surface (i.e., 330 (Immunoliposome-1), 480 (Immunoliposome-2) and 690 (Immunoliposome-3), p = 0.004, One-way ANOVA). Here we showed that optimal number of grafted antibodies on nanoparticles should be finely tuned and highest density of targeting agent is not necessarily associated with highest efficacy. Overall, this new method should help to better prototype third generation nanoparticles. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
ACADEMIC libraries, MANUFACTURING processes, LIBRARIANS, and LIBRARIES
Prototyping is an incremental process that facilitates those looking to make changes in products, services, or resources. Originating in industrial fabrication process, prototyping can be adapted by librarians to examine changes made to library services, amenities, and resources. They offer a cost-effective way of trying something new and needed, to ensure that patron needs are met. This article modifies prototyping into a five-step process and reviews five examples where the Lee Library used prototyping to inform library decisions to inform the development of library services, amenities, processes, and resources to better serve its patrons. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Sloyan, Karen, Melkonyan, Henrik, and Dahlem, Marcus S.
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology; Apr2020, Vol. 107 Issue 11/12, p4469-4480, 12p, 2 Black and White Photographs, 15 Diagrams, 2 Charts
FOCUSED ion beams, OPTICAL glass, MATERIALS science, RAPID prototyping, SEMICONDUCTOR materials, and OPTICAL fibers
Focused ion beam (FIB) milling is widely used in fields such as the semiconductor industry and materials science research. The direct writing and small feature size also make FIB milling attractive for rapid prototyping of novel photonic structures. In this manuscript, we describe in detail a FIB milling procedure which enables high-resolution fabrication of complex micro- and nanostructures with precise geometry control. Two different procedures (for 2D and 3D structures) are described and implemented on the tip of a glass optical fiber for fabricating diverse structures embedded on or below the tip surface. The procedures described here can be easily adjusted and implemented on any conductive or non-conductive substrate. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Conservation Biology. Dec 2019, Vol. 33 Issue 6, p1448, 3 p.
***** No abstract is available for this article. Article Note: Article impact statement: Web-application development frameworks enable the creation of decision-support tool prototypes for actionable conservation science. CAPTION(S): Table 1. List of web-application development frameworks that might be useful for conservation scientists. Byline: Denis Valle, Kok Ben Toh, Justin Millar
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. Sep2019, Vol. 34 Issue 9, p8715-8723. 9p.
Rapid prototyping, Current-voltage characteristics, and Feedback (Electronics)
Using a photovoltaic (PV) emulator (PVE) simplifies the testing of the PV generation system. However, conventional controllers used for PVEs suffer from oscillating output voltage, requiring a high number of iterations, or being too complex to be implemented. This paper proposes a controller based on a resistance feedback control strategy that produces a stable and fast converging operating point for the PVE. The resistance feedback control strategy requires a new type of PV model, which is the current–resistance (I–R) PV model. This model is computed using a binary search method at a fast convergence rate. It is combined with a closed-loop buck converter using a proportional-integral controller to form the resistance feedback control strategy. The PVE's controller is implemented into dSPACE ds1104 hardware platform for experimental validation. The acquired experimental results show that the proposed PVE is able to follow the current–voltage characteristic of the PV module accurately. In addition, the PVE's efficiency is more than 90% under maximum power point operation. The transient response of the proposed PVE is similar to the PV panel during irradiance changes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]