As relationship marketing research evolved, a number of key constructs emerged. Some scholars have argued that these constructs are not conceptually or empirically distinct. We investigate this phenomenon based on the premise that sustained research effort towards studying conceptually overlapping/redundant constructs, while treating them as independent, can hamper the development of the field. We use prototyping, a method adopted from psychology, to examine consumers’ views of these constructs, and then identify relationship contexts where constructs are distinct or redundant. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Medlej, Maroun, Stuban, Steven M. F., and Dever, Jason R.
Defense Acquisition Research Journal: A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Oct2017, Vol. 24 Issue 4, p626-655. 30p.
Systems engineering, Rapid prototyping, Defense industries, Manufacturing processes, and Likelihood ratio tests
In 2007, John Young, then-Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, mandated the use of "competitive prototyping" strategies in defense acquisition. Further, Department of Defense Instruction 5000.02 includes considerations for prototyping in the acquisition strategy. A 2017 memorandum circulated by Young lists five prototyping benefits, which are expected to "reduce technical risk, validate designs, validate cost estimates, evaluate manufacturing processes, and refine requirements." However, a process to assess whether, and to what extent, a prototype will be or has been successful in achieving these benefits is not currently in use by the Department of Defense. Because cost increases and schedule extension downsides are inherent in prototyping, such an assessment is critical. This research proposes an approach for assessing the likelihood of achieving expected prototyping benefits based on identifying the factors yielding these benefits as well as their relative weights. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Manufacturing processes, Librarians, Libraries, and Academic libraries
Prototyping is an incremental process that facilitates those looking to make changes in products, services, or resources. Originating in industrial fabrication process, prototyping can be adapted by librarians to examine changes made to library services, amenities, and resources. They offer a cost-effective way of trying something new and needed, to ensure that patron needs are met. This article modifies prototyping into a five-step process and reviews five examples where the Lee Library used prototyping to inform library decisions to inform the development of library services, amenities, processes, and resources to better serve its patrons. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Defense Acquisition Research Journal: A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Jan2018, Vol. 25 Issue 1, p2-29. 28p.
Technological innovations, Command of troops, Military technology, and Disruptive technologies
The Department of Defense (DoD) has recently launched several initiatives to accelerate technological innovation and sustain the U.S. military's technological leadership in an environment of increasing global competition. These include six new or expanded programs to enhance the use of experimentation and prototyping under the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the military services. This study examines the six programs and compares their features in light of historical case studies of past disruptive military innovations and the success factors that enabled these innovations to progress from idea to prototype to fielded military capability. Best practices are identified that can be shared between the six programs, or implemented in the design of new DoD initiatives to promote and secure U.S. technological dominance on the battlefields of tomorrow. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
In order to investigate how the use of robots may impact everyday tasks, twelve participants in our study interacted with a University of Hertfordshire Sunflower robot over a period of 8 weeks in the university's Robot House. Participants performed two constrained tasks, one physical and one cognitive, four times over this period. Participant responses were recorded using a variety of measures including the System Usability Scale and the NASA Task Load Index. The use of the robot had an impact on the experienced workload of the participants diﬀerently for the two tasks, and this eﬀect changed over time. In the physical task, there was evidence of adaptation to the robot's behavior. For the cognitive task, the use of the robot was experienced as more frustrating in the later weeks. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Journal of Management Information Systems. Winter90/91, Vol. 7 Issue 3, p67-87. 21p.
Prototypes, Technology, Organization, Process control systems, Software engineering, Computer software development, Information resources management, Decision making, Production management (Manufacturing), Methodology, Performance, and Design
Prototyping has received a great deal of attention as an important design methodology. Current support technologies for prototyping environments are typically intended to increase the efficiency of the individual system builder. We propose a broader perspective for assessing the impact of support technology on prototyping processes. In developing this perspective, we present frameworks for prototyping processes, support technologies, and development performance. Prototyping is characterized from the behavioral perspectives of individual, social, and organizational processes--each of which must be considered in assessing impacts. Support technology is characterized by production, coordination, and organizational dimensions, each affecting prototyping processes and performance in unique ways. To assess the impacts of the process-technology linkages, measures are suggested for evaluating prototyping processes and products from task, social, and business perspectives. It is proposed that the primary determinant of performance impact is the fit between the prototyping processes and the support technology used. By combining a functional model of support technology with behavioral perspectives of the prototyping process, a better understanding of the impacts of technology on prototyping effectiveness is obtained. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Baldassarre, Brian, Konietzko, Jan, Brown, Phil, Calabretta, Giulia, Bocken, Nancy, Karpen, Ingo O., and Hultink, Erik Jan
Journal of Cleaner Production. May2020, Vol. 255, pN.PAG-N.PAG. 1p.
Business models, Sustainable engineering, Industrial goods, Innovations in business, Design science, and Manufacturing processes
Next to the redesign of industrial products and processes, sustainable business model innovation is a strategic approach to integrate environmental and social concerns into the objectives and operations of organizations. One of the major challenges of this approach is that many promising business model ideas fail to reach the market, which is needed to achieve impact. In the literature, the issue is referred to as a "design-implementation gap." This paper explores how that critical gap may be bridged. In doing so, we contribute to sustainable business model innovation theory and practice. We contribute to theory by connecting sustainable business model innovation with business experimentation and strategic design , two innovation approaches that leverage prototyping as a way to iteratively implement business ideas early on. Using a design science research methodology, we combine theoretical insights from these three literatures into a tool for setting up small-scale pilots of sustainable business models. We apply, evaluate, and improve our tool through a rigorous process by working with nine startups and one multinational company. As a result, we provide normative theory in terms of the sustainable business model innovation process, explaining that piloting a prototype forces organizations to simultaneously consider the desirability (i.e., what users want), feasibility (i.e., what is technically achievable), viability (i.e., what is financially possible), and sustainability (i.e., what is economically, socially and environmentally acceptable) of a new business model. Doing so early on is functional to bridge the design-implementation gap of sustainable business models. We contribute to practice with the tool itself, which organizations can use to translate sustainable business model ideas defined "on paper" into small-scale pilots as a first implementation step. We encourage future research building on the limitations of this exploratory study by working with a larger sample of companies through longitudinal case studies, to further explain how these pilots can be executed successfully. Image 1 • Many business model ideas aimed at integrating sustainability into the objectives and operations of organizations fail to reach the market. • Prototyping allows bridging this design-implementation gap of sustainable business models by shifting the focus from ideation to execution. • We propose a tool that organizations can use to plan and execute small-scale pilots for implementing sustainable business models. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Economic impact, Rapid prototyping, Product design, Research & development, Innovations in business, and Engineering students
Abstract: Research and development laboratories in universities and firms around the world try to maximize innovation with a limited set of resources. However, questions remain about the influence of resource constraints on idea generation in early-stage product design. Multiple embedded case studies were conducted with engineering students and faculty at two university campuses in Mexico. Students developed sketches for products that would satisfy an open-ended design problem in a constrained-resource setting, where the variables were the timing of when information about these constraints was revealed, and the regular prototyping environment of the student. The evidence suggests that the timing of awareness of constraints can have an impact on design outcomes, but that this effect varies depending on the designer's regular prototyping resource environment. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
DESIGN education, RAPID prototyping, and DESIGN materials
Co-invention projects in elementary school engage pupils in complex, open-ended design tasks in a practical, hands-on way. Physical materials are an intrinsic part of design, involving trasformation of conceptual ideas into material forms, such as prototypes. These tangible objects mediate embodied thinking and act as material-social mediators of knowledge creation processes. However, the material properties of the designed artifact and pupils' varying skills and levels of material knowledge constrain the design process. While previous studies of materiality in design have mainly focused on adults, this study aims to analyze and describe the different roles of material prototyping in an elementary school collaborative design process. A co-invention process was conducted in a Finnish elementary school during spring 2017, with the task of designing solutions for everyday problems. The data consisted of six video recorded design sessions, where small teams of 5th graders prototyped their inventions. We analyzed the video data across macro-, intermediate-, and micro-levels. The results revealed that pupils used prototypes as mediators for ideation and collaboration. They tested their ideas with prototyping, and material manipulation occurred during collaborative ideation. Material representations supported the verbalization and demonstration of ideas. Some challenges also emerged; prototype construction was a slow and laborious process, the division of labor tended to be unevenly distributed, and the model took a dominant role over the designed artifact. We conclude that support from the teacher and the learning environment is critical for utilizing the full potential of material manipulation in an elementary school setting. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, ENGINEERING design, THREE-dimensional printing, INFORMATION retrieval, and INTERDISCIPLINARY research
Purpose This paper aims to argue about the involvement of additive technologies (ATs) in the prototyping issues of designing. More precisely, it reviews the literature contributions focused on the different perspectives of prototyping activities for design purposes, searching for both available knowledge and research needs concerning the correct exploitation of ATs.Design/methodology/approach A two-step literature review has been performed. In the first step, general information has been retrieved about prototyping issues related to design. In the second step, the literature searches were focused on retrieving more detailed information about ATs, concerning each of the main issues identified in the previous step. Extracted information has been analyzed and discussed for understanding the actual coverage of the arguments and for identifying possible research needs.Findings Four generally valid prototyping issues have been identified in the first step of the literature review. For each of them, available information and current lacks have been identified and discussed about the involvement of AT, allowing to extract six different research hints for future works.Originality/value This is the first literature review concerning AT-focused contributions that cover the complex and inter-disciplinary issues characterizing prototyping activities in design contexts. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, LABORATORY equipment & supplies, OPEN source software, POTENTIOMETRY, INSTRUMENT industry, and ECONOMICS
Abstract: Open‐source electronics and programming can augment chemical and biomedical research. Currently, chemists can choose from a broad range of low‐cost universal electronic modules (microcontroller boards and single‐board computers) and use them to assemble working prototypes of scientific tools to address specific experimental problems and to support daily research work. The learning time can be as short as a few hours, and the required budget is often as low as 50 USD. Prototyping instruments using low‐cost electronic modules gives chemists enormous flexibility to design and construct customized instrumentation, which can reduce the delays caused by limited access to high‐end commercial platforms. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]