Plouffe, Christopher R., Nagel, Duane, Bonney, Leff, Hochstein, Bryan, and Salas, Jim
Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice. Winter2020, Vol. 28 Issue 1, p79-97. 19p. 2 Charts.
Customer cocreation, Business enterprises, and Value chains
We develop a conceptual framework that examines the behavior of the solutions-oriented-firm from initial solutions generation, through the "sale" and delivery to an initial customer, and its potential dissemination to the broader marketplace as a more standardized product/service offering. Particular attention is paid to the emerging discussion of value co-creation and Service-Dominant logic. Key tenets of the Austrian School of Economics are leveraged to identify how the selling firm, sales employee, and buying firm co-create value, and the "solution" itself. Thus, providing a deeper understanding of the "end-to-end" value chain of activities and drivers of firm performance. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Systems Research & Behavioral Science. Nov2019, Vol. 36 Issue 6, p835-844. 10p.
New product development, Systems design, Systems theory, Computer graphics, Computer simulation, Human anatomical models (Objects), and Psychophysics
In almost all areas of the industry and more generally in the sector of development of manufacturing products, the realization of the product passes through several successive stages going from the design to the realization of the product. The most critical phase is prototyping because it is at this point that usually the most important decisions are made. In several sectors this step is very expensive, and in any case, the prototype undergoes several modifications and requires several validations before it is definitive for the transition to production. The prototype must generally constitute a model of the product that has all or part of the technical qualities and operating characteristics that must appear in the final product, to demonstrate or affirm the validity of the concept and thus its final validation, which increases the overall cost of the prototyping phase. In the vast majority of prototyping devices available for the moment, be it by additive or subtractive process, the realization of the prototype requires a lot of time, and once the prototype is made, it can only be modified by destructive techniques because the materials used are frozen and do not allow easy reuse. This study proposes a device for the prototyping of product, allowing a modification of the geometry of the prototype by means of a deformable composite membrane with shape memory, reusable and programmable. The device in question consists of a flexible composite membrane whose matrix is a flexible polymer, and the reinforcement is a shape‐memory alloy fibre and rubber effect, having a given electrical resistance. These shape memory fibres are woven in such a way as to ensure deformations in the direction normal to the plane of the membrane by injecting the current into each fibre. This is ensured by a cross weave allowing the control of the direction of the overall deformation through the deformation specific to each fibre. In this research work, we present the results of the modelling and simulation of the behaviour of a composite membrane with shape memory. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, SELECTIVE laser sintering, DENTISTRY, and STEREOLITHOGRAPHY
The advent of Rapid prototyping has opened new prospects in medical field, especially dentistry with its accuracy and speed. Rapid prototyping is an additive manufacturing technology that produces prototype models by adding materials, layer by layer. The earlier subtractive technologies manufactured objects via milling or grinding of a material resulting in replication of only external surface details. On the contrary, rapid prototyping provides a replica with internal complex shapes. This article discusses the various Rapid prototyping technologies commonly employed in dentistry such as selective laser sintering, stereolithography, fused deposition modelling. inkjet printing and solid ground curing. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Target costing, Prototypes, Product design, Rapid prototyping, and Suppliers
Prototyping allows firms to evaluate the technical feasibility of alternative product designs and to better estimate their costs. We study a collaborative prototyping scenario in which a manufacturer involves a supplier in the prototyping process by letting the supplier make detailed design choices for critical components and provide prototypes for testing. While the supplier can obtain private information about the costs, the manufacturer uses target costing to gain control over the design choice. We show that involving the supplier in the prototyping process has an important influence on the manufacturer's optimal decisions. The collaboration results in information asymmetry, which makes parallel prototyping less attractive and potentially reverses the optimal testing sequence under sequential prototyping: It may be optimal to test designs in increasing order of attractiveness to avoid that the supplier does not release technically and economically feasible prototypes for strategic reasons. We also find that the classical target costing approaches (cost‐ and market‐based) need to be adjusted in the presence of alternative designs: Due to the strategic behavior of suppliers, it is not always optimal to provide identical target costs for designs with similar cost and performance estimates, nor to provide different target costs for dissimilar designs. Furthermore, the timing is important: While committing upfront to carefully chosen target costs reduces the supplier's strategic behavior, in some circumstances, the manufacturer can take advantage of this behavior by remaining flexible and specifying the second prototype's target costs later. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Manufacturing processes, Librarians, Libraries, and Academic libraries
Prototyping is an incremental process that facilitates those looking to make changes in products, services, or resources. Originating in industrial fabrication process, prototyping can be adapted by librarians to examine changes made to library services, amenities, and resources. They offer a cost-effective way of trying something new and needed, to ensure that patron needs are met. This article modifies prototyping into a five-step process and reviews five examples where the Lee Library used prototyping to inform library decisions to inform the development of library services, amenities, processes, and resources to better serve its patrons. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
International Journal of Production Research. 1/1/2005, Vol. 43 Issue 1, p169-194. 26p. 7 Black and White Photographs, 5 Diagrams, 10 Charts.
Rapid prototyping, Management information systems, Decision support systems, Prototypes, and Production engineering
A new method is proposed for selecting the most appropriate rapid prototyping process according to user's specific requirements by using the expert system and fuzzy synthetic evaluation. The selection process is divided into two stages. First, it is necessary to generate feasible alternatives, which are executed under the expert system environment. Second, given those feasible alternatives, the fuzzy synthetic evaluation approach is employed to produce a ranking order of the alternatives and to finalize the most suirapid prototyping system. One distinctive characteristic of this method is that quantitative as well as qualitative measures are employed, providing more accurate results. The decision system developed based on the proposed method is composed of four modules: a database to store the specifications of various rapid prototyping processes; a knowledge-based expert system for determining the feasible alternatives; a fuzzy synthetic evaluation model to select the most suitable rapid prototyping process; and a user interface and an expert interface to interact with the system. The fuzzy synthetic evaluation approach used in the system is illustrated in detail by a numerical example. Furthermore, a Java-enabled solution, together with web techniques, is employed for developing such a networked decision support system. Finally, two examples of rapid prototyping process selection are designed to demonstrate the application of the system. The system has been implemented and can run at a rapid prototyping and manufacturing networked service platform that the authors have developed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
A direct-slicing approach might improve the accuracy and quality of small, complex parts produced with rapid prototyping technology. An application software based on direct slicing for rapid prototyping was used on the foundation of PowerSHAPE models. Lines, conic arcs and cubic bezier curves were adopted as the basic elements describing the direct-slicing contours. Moreover, a scheme to carry out subdivided software development was proposed. A picture (PIC) format file was selected as an interface for the slicing data, and a macro-AutoSection software, which collects the direct-slicing contour data of arbitrary complex computer-aided design models and provides power to produce the direct-slicing PIC files, was developed. On the above basis, an application software called PDSlice based on direct-slicing data processing was developed for the commercial selective laser sintering machine HRPS-III, which was made at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), P. R. China. The major input and output interfaces as well as the PIC model reconstruction method of the PDSlice are described. Furthermore, a batch of direct-slicing polymer parts were successfully fabricated with the selective laser sintering machine. The application example shows that the accuracy and surface finish of three-dimensional complex curvature surface parts fabricated with the application software system based on a direct-slicing format were better than the application software system based on a stereolithography (STL) format. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
International Journal of Production Research. Nov2008, Vol. 46 Issue 22, p6431-6460. 30p. 15 Diagrams, 8 Charts, 1 Graph.
Prototypes, Rapid prototyping, Computer integrated manufacturing systems, Industrial engineering, Mathematical models, Production planning, Computer-aided process planning, New product development, Concurrent engineering, Programming languages, C (Computer program language), Job analysis, and Manufacturing process automation
This paper presents a generative process planning system for parts produced by the rapid prototyping process (i.e. fused deposition modelling-FDM). The proposed process planning involves optimal selection of orientating the model with a proper support structure and then provides an intelligent slicing methodology, such as direct or adaptive, to minimise the built up time, keeping the geometry and cusp height errors in control. Pre- and post-slicing processes have been used to minimise the sliced data error. The Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) model has been arranged into five modules: orientation, support structure generation, slicing, path planning and Numerical Control (NC) program generation, and model build up. The CAPP model has been implemented in C language having a unique methodology consisting of 42 simplified steps. The CAPP model has been tested for several examples and shows satisfactory results. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
3D printing -- Usage, Thermoplastics -- Production processes, Thermoplastics -- Innovations, Plastics industry -- Production processes, and Plastics industry -- Innovations
The laborious process of product development is changing. The evolution of rapid prototyping, 3D printing, and additive manufacturing will continue to affect the process for the better, developing accurate and [...]