Manufacturing industry -- Technology application, Expert systems -- Usage, and Factory management -- Technology application
Experts estimate that 65% of all manufacturing firms employ fifty or less employees, and many of these small manufacturing firms operate as job shop environments. This paper will focus on a methodology for the development of an expert systems approach to job shop scheduling. Specifically, the concept of prototyping and life cycle development will be discussed. Prototyping combines the steps of knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation, knowledge implementation, and verification and validation into a repetitive cycle, rather than having the steps in a sequential fashion. By using a prototyping cycle, a small expert system is developed first and then gradually enlarged as exception cases are identified, instead of attempting to complete each step entirely before continuing with the next.
Computers & Industrial Engineering. April 1994, Vol. 26 Issue 2, p349, 9 p. table
Reverse engineering -- Research, Control systems -- Research, and Lasers in engineering -- Research
In rapid prototyping it is frequently necessary to define and CNC machine the complete surface form of complex three-dimensional shapes. In this work arbitrary curved surfaces are digitized by ro them in angular increments and acquiring lines of surface data points at each angular position, with triangulation-based laser range finder. The laser scanner data is filtered, and reconstructed, so th offsets and quasi-helical toolpaths for CNC machining can be directly formed. The approach may be us for machining basically any type of object and is not limited to true surfaces of revolution. A scan and CNC machined perfume bottle is used as an example to illustrate the capabilities of this approac
United States. John F. Kennedy Space Center -- Safety and security measures, Occupational health and safety -- Evaluation, Ergonomics -- Research, and Computer-aided design -- Usage
A Human Factors Engineering (HFE) pilot project undertaken by NASA on the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, effectively demonstrates the advantage of using Human Factors to support NASA Safety. The project's goal is to reduce the causes of accidents by reducing error producing situations. The initial phase of this endeavor consisted of a review of design drawings for the SSPF, identifying all Human Factors (HF) concerns with special emphasis on those that affected personnel safety, payload protection, and operational efficiency. When drawings did not completely disclose how the facility's characteristics would fulfill operational needs, other facilities at KSC were visited to obtain insights that could be applied to the drawing critique. Overall, the drawing review revealed a broad range of HF and Safety concerns. When possible, these concerns were discussed with the appropriate engineering personnel to effect workable solutions. To date, some of these HF & Safety concerns have been resolved by incorporating HF principles. Thus, this project has reduced potential problems that can contribute to accidents and costly delays, such as the Magellan Spacecraft Incident in October of 1988. In addition, this project has led to the evaluation of candidate methods for the implementation of HF. Among these, a means of conducting HF evaluations during Engineering Prototyping in a Computer Aided Design environment. This innovative technique is anticipated to demonstrate the Safety advantage and substantial cost savings of incorporating HF principles.
Computers & Industrial Engineering. Nov 1992, Vol. 23 Issue 1-4, p41, 4 p. table
Machine vision -- Usage, CAD-CAM systems -- Design and construction, and Production engineering
A product design and development system which utilizes computer vision for production modeling and prototyping was developed. The system makes use of an information database concerning geometric values to produce initial production cost estimates and evaluate automated process planning. The resulting models are then passed to a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing system. The current implementation is limited to two-dimensional applications.
Trends, Future of Computing, User Relations, User Assistance, End User, User-Written Software, Management of EDP, Programmer, EDP Personnel, Program Development Techniques, and Prototype
The processes of systems analysis and programming have changed little in the last ten to fifteen years. The arrival of mini- and micro-computers in user departments and the change in user information requirements will force a change in data processing. 'Fourth generation' software, or end user computing involves the user departments directly in the development of a system. Prototyping of a system by programmer and a user will be used to first develop screen layouts, then to map out processing using high-level languages. In order to survive, programmers will need to become involved with the applications they are coding and will need to acquire systems analysis skills.