Allison, J.R., Currie, C., Trainor, J., Corson, M., and Durham, J.
Oral Surgery. August 2019, Vol. 12 Issue 3, p224, 6 p.
Postal service, Medical research, Medicine, Experimental, Patient satisfaction, and Patient education
Byline: J.R. Allison, C. Currie, J. Trainor, M. Corson, J. Durham Keywords: mail; management; occlusal splint; post; soft splint; Temporomandibular disorders Abstract Aim Occlusal splints are an effective intervention for temporomandibular disorders, and are often used in tooth wear, for protection of extensive adhesive restorations, and as a means of applying medications to gingival conditions. Patients may be required to attend a second appointment to fit the device after impressions are taken, however, some units may send the device in the post once constructed. These appliances rarely require modification to fit and are not occlusally adjusted. The aim of the present study was to assess patients' satisfaction with a postal system for soft splints. Methods 100 consecutive patients who had been issued with a soft occlusal splint by post immediately prior to August 2015 were sent a questionnaire assessing their satisfaction with receiving the splint in this manner. Results The response rate was 42%. 93% of respondents reported that their splint fitted correctly and 98% reported that they had used it, with the mean length of wear being 8.7 weeks (SD: 5.7). 81% of patients reported that the splint helped 'a lot' or 'a little'. 83% of patients reported being 'very happy' or 'happy', and 15% were 'not bothered' about not seeing a clinician. Conclusions Our results would suggest that patients are generally pleased with receiving a splint in the post. This system may allow reduced demand on services and may reduce out of pocket and time costs incurred to patients. The low response rate however may affect generalisability. CAPTION(S): Data S1. Patient instruction leaflet. Data S2. Patient Satisfaction Questionaire.
United States. Postal Service, Postal service -- Intellectual property, Women -- Health aspects, and Trademarks
2019 NOV 7 (NewsRx) -- By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Women's Health Weekly -- According to news reporting originating from Washington, D.C., by NewsRx journalists, a trademark application [...]
Linnarsson, Magnus and Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen
Scandinavian Journal of History. 37(3):296-316
Humanities, History and Archaeology, History, Humaniora, Historia och arkeologi, Historia, Sweden, state, administration, postal service, early modern, lease contract, transaction costs, political transaction costs, organizational history, and historia
This article deals with the privatization of the Swedish postal service in the 1660s. In 1663 the Swedish state signed a lease contract for the management of the kingdom's postal service, handing over the leadership of the post to the nobleman Johan von Beijer. The purpose of this article is to show how the early modern Swedish state used private alternatives in executing its undertakings. An analysis of Johan von Beijer's lease contract will serve as an illuminating example of what such a private alternative might be. In order to answer the question of what influenced the choice of organization form, transaction cost theory is applied. Based on the analysis of the contract, and the negotiations between Beijer and the state, this article is able to complement and show the nuances of how the early modern Swedish state functioned in practice.
Salow, Katheryn R., Cohen, Adam C., Bristow, Claire C., McGrath, Mark R., and Klausner, Jeffrey D.
PLoS ONE. Dec 14, 2017, Vol. 12 Issue 12, e0189515
United States. Postal Service -- Services, Medical tests -- Usage, Medical tests -- Comparative analysis, Postal service -- Usage, Postal service -- Research, Sexually transmitted diseases -- Diagnosis, and Sexually transmitted diseases -- Research
Author(s): Katheryn R. Salow 1,*, Adam C. Cohen 1, Claire C. Bristow 2, Mark R. McGrath 1, Jeffrey D. Klausner 3,4 Introduction Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections [...] Objectives To evaluate the concordance between clinic-collected extra-genital specimens and self-collected mailed-in extra-genital specimens among participants seeking sexually transmitted infection testing at a free clinic in Hollywood, CA. Methods A convenience sample of 210 men who have sex with men were enrolled between February 29, 2016 and December 21, 2016 and received mail-in testing kits for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). All testing was performed using the GeneXpert#174; CT/NG (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA). Results From the 210 mail-in kits distributed, 149 mail-in kits (71.0%) were returned to the laboratory, resulting in 145 pairs (clinic-collected and mail-in) of rectal test results and 148 pairs of pharyngeal test results for both CT and NG detection. The concordance was 95.0% for all CT rectal tests, 99.3% for all CT pharyngeal tests, 95.7% for all NG rectal tests, and 97.2% for all NG pharyngeal tests. Conclusion Roughly two-thirds of mail-in test kits were returned and concordance was generally high, however more than one-third of positive results were missed in mail-in samples. The prevalence of potential false-negative results among mail-in samples warrants caution when implementing mail-in STI testing strategies.
BMC Infectious Diseases. Dec 5, 2018, Vol. 18 Issue 1
HIV infection -- Risk factors, MSM (Men who have sex with men) -- Health aspects, Blood -- Medical examination, and Blood -- Usage
Author(s): Misao Takano[sup.1], Kohta Iwahashi[sup.2], Ikuo Satoh[sup.3], Junko Araki[sup.2], Takuya Kinami[sup.2], Yuzuru Ikushima[sup.3], Toshiya Fukuhara[sup.3], Hiroo Obinata[sup.4], Yasuyo Nakayama[sup.4], Yoshimi Kikuchi[sup.5], Shinichi Oka[sup.5] and [sup.] Background According to the current [...] Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV infection. However, there are only few data on HIV prevalence in MSM in Japan. The objective of this study was to explore the HIV prevalence in MSM at Shinjuku 2-chome, a well known gay quarter in Tokyo. Methods MSM directly collected the dried blood spot (DBS) self-collection HIV test kit from a drop-in center in Shinjuku 2-chome between August 2015 and December 2016. The participants collected their own blood by finger-prick and anonymously posted the kit to the laboratory. The participants accessed the study website and checked the results of their tests using unique ID and password. DBS was soaked in phosphate buffered saline overnight and the eluted sample was examined by the fourth generation HIV Ag/Ab test of LUMIPULSE (FUJIREBIO INC.), and followed by HISCL (Sysmex Corp.) when the first assay was positive. The result was defined provisionally positive if both were positive. Results A total of 1702 HIV test kits were distributed and 1403 DBS were returned (return rate: 82.4%). Since 20.2% of participants collected the test kit more than once, the estimated number of actual test kit users was 1120. Based on the results of the test kit, 34 cases were provisionally diagnosed with HIV. The estimated prevalence was 3.04% (95% confidence interval: 2.03-4.04). Of these 34, 24 (70.6%) were later confirmed to be HIV-positive in the hospital, while the remaining 10 were lost to follow-up. Among the participants, 34.5% received HIV test for the first time. Especially in those aged 20-29, 46.0% were first time HIV testers. Conclusions The prevalence of HIV infection in the study population was 3.04%. The high collection suggested a demand for this type of testing in MSM. The test should be expanded further to difficult-to-reach or hidden populations. Trial registration This study was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registry in August 20th, 2015 (Registry number: UMIN000018699). Keywords: HIV prevalence, MSM, Dried blood spot, Self-collection kit