Salow, Katheryn R., Cohen, Adam C., Bristow, Claire C., McGrath, Mark R., and Klausner, Jeffrey D.
PLoS ONE. Dec 14, 2017, Vol. 12 Issue 12, e0189515
United States. Postal Service -- Services, Medical tests -- Usage, Medical tests -- Comparative analysis, Postal service -- Usage, Postal service -- Research, Sexually transmitted diseases -- Diagnosis, and Sexually transmitted diseases -- Research
Author(s): Katheryn R. Salow 1,*, Adam C. Cohen 1, Claire C. Bristow 2, Mark R. McGrath 1, Jeffrey D. Klausner 3,4 Introduction Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections [...] Objectives To evaluate the concordance between clinic-collected extra-genital specimens and self-collected mailed-in extra-genital specimens among participants seeking sexually transmitted infection testing at a free clinic in Hollywood, CA. Methods A convenience sample of 210 men who have sex with men were enrolled between February 29, 2016 and December 21, 2016 and received mail-in testing kits for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). All testing was performed using the GeneXpert#174; CT/NG (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA). Results From the 210 mail-in kits distributed, 149 mail-in kits (71.0%) were returned to the laboratory, resulting in 145 pairs (clinic-collected and mail-in) of rectal test results and 148 pairs of pharyngeal test results for both CT and NG detection. The concordance was 95.0% for all CT rectal tests, 99.3% for all CT pharyngeal tests, 95.7% for all NG rectal tests, and 97.2% for all NG pharyngeal tests. Conclusion Roughly two-thirds of mail-in test kits were returned and concordance was generally high, however more than one-third of positive results were missed in mail-in samples. The prevalence of potential false-negative results among mail-in samples warrants caution when implementing mail-in STI testing strategies.
BMC Infectious Diseases. Dec 5, 2018, Vol. 18 Issue 1
HIV infection -- Risk factors, MSM (Men who have sex with men) -- Health aspects, Blood -- Medical examination, and Blood -- Usage
Author(s): Misao Takano[sup.1], Kohta Iwahashi[sup.2], Ikuo Satoh[sup.3], Junko Araki[sup.2], Takuya Kinami[sup.2], Yuzuru Ikushima[sup.3], Toshiya Fukuhara[sup.3], Hiroo Obinata[sup.4], Yasuyo Nakayama[sup.4], Yoshimi Kikuchi[sup.5], Shinichi Oka[sup.5] and [sup.] Background According to the current [...] Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV infection. However, there are only few data on HIV prevalence in MSM in Japan. The objective of this study was to explore the HIV prevalence in MSM at Shinjuku 2-chome, a well known gay quarter in Tokyo. Methods MSM directly collected the dried blood spot (DBS) self-collection HIV test kit from a drop-in center in Shinjuku 2-chome between August 2015 and December 2016. The participants collected their own blood by finger-prick and anonymously posted the kit to the laboratory. The participants accessed the study website and checked the results of their tests using unique ID and password. DBS was soaked in phosphate buffered saline overnight and the eluted sample was examined by the fourth generation HIV Ag/Ab test of LUMIPULSE (FUJIREBIO INC.), and followed by HISCL (Sysmex Corp.) when the first assay was positive. The result was defined provisionally positive if both were positive. Results A total of 1702 HIV test kits were distributed and 1403 DBS were returned (return rate: 82.4%). Since 20.2% of participants collected the test kit more than once, the estimated number of actual test kit users was 1120. Based on the results of the test kit, 34 cases were provisionally diagnosed with HIV. The estimated prevalence was 3.04% (95% confidence interval: 2.03-4.04). Of these 34, 24 (70.6%) were later confirmed to be HIV-positive in the hospital, while the remaining 10 were lost to follow-up. Among the participants, 34.5% received HIV test for the first time. Especially in those aged 20-29, 46.0% were first time HIV testers. Conclusions The prevalence of HIV infection in the study population was 3.04%. The high collection suggested a demand for this type of testing in MSM. The test should be expanded further to difficult-to-reach or hidden populations. Trial registration This study was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registry in August 20th, 2015 (Registry number: UMIN000018699). Keywords: HIV prevalence, MSM, Dried blood spot, Self-collection kit