Luzio de Melo, Paulo, da Silva, Miguel Tavares, Martins, Jorge, and Newman, Dava
Artificial Organs. May 2015, Vol. 39 Issue 5, E56, 11 p.
Semiconductor device, Circuit components, and Rapid prototyping
Byline: Paulo Luzio de Melo,Miguel Tavares da Silva, Jorge Martins, Dava Newman Keywords: Functional electrical stimulation; Neuroprosthesis; Arduino microcontroller platform; Accelerometer; Inertial measurement unit; Gait; Force sensitive resistors; Closed-loop control; Drop foot; Rapid prototyping Abstract Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been used over the last decades as a method to rehabilitate lost motor functions of individuals with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and post-stroke hemiparesis. Within this field, researchers in need of developing FES-based control solutions for specific disabilities often have to choose between either the acquisition and integration of high-performance industry-level systems, which are rather expensive and hardly portable, or develop custom-made portable solutions, which despite their lower cost, usually require expert-level electronic skills. Here, a flexible low-cost microcontroller-based platform for rapid prototyping of FES neuroprostheses is presented, designed for reduced execution complexity, development time, and production cost. For this reason, the Arduino open-source microcontroller platform was used, together with off-the-shelf components whenever possible. The developed system enables the rapid deployment of portable FES-based gait neuroprostheses, being flexible enough to allow simple open-loop strategies but also more complex closed-loop solutions. The system is based on a modular architecture that allows the development of optimized solutions depending on the desired FES applications, even though the design and testing of the platform were focused toward drop foot correction. The flexibility of the system was demonstrated using two algorithms targeting drop foot condition within different experimental setups. Successful bench testing of the device in healthy subjects demonstrated these neuroprosthesis platform capabilities to correct drop foot.
Silva, Andre Fellipe Cavalcante, Santos, Alexsandro Jose Virginio, Souto, Cicero da Rocha, Araujo, Carlos Jose, and Silva, Simplicio Arnaud
Artificial Organs. Nov 2013, Vol. 37 Issue 11, p965, 8 p.
Biological products, Acrylonitrile, Butadiene, and Shape-memory alloys
This paper presents the design and testing of an artificial finger based partly on biomechanics. The prototype was manufactured in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene plastic using a rapid prototyping three-dimensional printer. The flexing of the finger was realized by Ni-Ti shape-memory alloy (SMA) wires with diameters of 0.3mm, activated by resistive heating. The results obtained show the new prototype to be superior in performance, mainly in terms of angles of rotation of the phalanges, compared with some SMA fingers discussed in the literature.