Clin, Julien, Aubin, Carl-Eric, and Labelle, Hubert
Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing. May 2007, Vol. 45 Issue 5, p467, 7 p.
Finite element method -- Analysis and Finite element method -- Models
Based on a three-dimensional patient-specific finite element model of the spine, rib cage, pelvis and abdomen, a parametric model of a thoraco-lumbo-sacral orthosis (TLSO) was built. Its geometry is custom-fit to the patient. The rigid shell, pads and openings are all represented. The interaction between the trunk and the brace is modeled by a point-to-surface contact interface. During the nonlinear simulation process, the brace is opened, positioned on the patient and strap tension is applied. A TLSO similar to Boston brace system was built for a right-thoracic scoliotic patient. The influences of the trochanter pad and strap tension on the 3-D geometrical corrections and on the forces generated by the brace were evaluated. The role of the trochanter pad as a lever arm is confirmed by the model. The brace induces a reduction of the lordosis and pelvic tilt. The reduction of the frontal curvature is about 20% for a strap tension of 60 N. Axial rotation does not significantly change and rib hump is worsened. By using an explicit brace model and a contact interface, a more realistic simulation of orthotic treatment of scoliosis can be achieved. The stabilization of the brace on the patient can be represented and less restrictive boundary conditions can be applied. This model could be used to study the effect of design parameters on the brace efficiency.
Lu, Sheng, Zhang, Yuan Z., Wang, Zheng, Shi, Ji H., Chen, Yu B., Xu, Xing M., and Xu, Yong Q.
Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing. July 2012, Vol. 50 Issue 7, p751, 8 p.
Orthopedic surgery -- Analysis, Nuclear radiation -- Analysis, Medical errors -- Analysis, Electronics in navigation -- Analysis, Rapid prototyping -- Analysis, and Scoliosis -- Analysis
With the rapid increase in the use of thoracic pedicle screws in scoliosis, accurate and safe placement of screw within the pedicle is a crucial step during the scoliosis surgery. To make thoracic pedicle screw placement safer various techniques are used, Patient-specific drill template with pre-planned trajectory has been thought as a promising solution, it is critical to assess the efficacy, safety profile with this technique. In this paper, we develop and validate the accuracy and safety of thoracic transpedicular screw placement with patient-specific drill template technique in scoliosis. Patients with scoliosis requiring instrumentation were recruited. Volumetric CT scan was performed on each desired thoracic vertebra and a 3-D reconstruction model was generated from the CT scan data. The optimal screw size and orientation were determined and a drill template was designed with a surface that is the inverse of the posterior vertebral surface. The drill template and its corresponding vertebra were manufactured using rapid prototyping technique and tested for violations. The navigational template was sterilized and used intraoperatively to assist with the placement of thoracic screws. After surgery, the positions of the pedicle screws were evaluated using CT scan and graded for validation. This method showed its ability to customize the placement and the size of each pedicle screw based on the unique morphology of the thoracic vertebra. In all the cases, it was relatively very easy to manually place the drill template on the lamina of the vertebral body during the surgery. This method significantly reduces the operation time and radiation exposure for the members of the surgical team, making it a practical, simple and safe method. The potential use of such a navigational template to insert thoracic pedicle screws in scoliosis is promising. The use of surgical navigation system successfully reduced the perforation rate and insertion angle errors, demonstrating the clear advantage in safe and accurate pedicle screw placement of scoliosis surgery.
Ciocca, L., Fantini, M., Crescenzio, F., Corinaldesi, G., and Scotti, R.
Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing. Nov 2011, Vol. 49 Issue 11, p1347, 6 p.
Rapid prototyping -- Analysis, Implants, Artificial -- Analysis, Prosthesis -- Analysis, Sintering -- Analysis, Titanium -- Analysis, Universities and colleges -- Analysis, and Air pollution -- Analysis
This study describes a protocol for the direct manufacturing of a customized titanium mesh using CAD--CAM procedures and rapid prototyping to augment maxillary bone and minimize surgery when severe atrophy or post-oncological deformities are present. Titanium mesh and particulate autogenous plus bovine demineralised bone were planned for patient rehabilitation. Bone augmentation planning was performed using the pre-op CT data set in relation to the prosthetic demands, minimizing the bone volume to augment at the minimum necessary for implants. The containment mesh design was used to prototype the 0.6 mm thickness customized titanium mesh, by direct metal laser sintering. The levels of regenerated bone were calculated using the post-op CT data set, through comparison with the pre-op CT data set. The mean vertical height difference of the crestal bone was 2.57 mm, while the mean buccal-palatal dimension of thickness difference was 3.41 mm. All planned implants were positioned after an 8 month healing period using two-step implant surgery, and finally restored with a partial fixed prosthesis. We present a viable and reproducible method to determine the correct bone augmentation prior to implant placement and CAD--CAM to produce a customized direct laser-sintered titanium mesh that can be used for bone regeneration.
Ciocca, L., Mazzoni, S., Fantini, M., Persiani, F., Baldissara, P., Marchetti, C., and Scotti, R.
Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing. July 2012, Vol. 50 Issue 7, p743, 7 p.
Universities and colleges, Orthopedic surgery, Implants, Artificial, Prosthesis, Ablation (Surgery), Computer-aided design, Tumors, and Rapid prototyping
This paper describes a new protocol for mandibular reconstruction. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology was used to manufacture custom-made cutting guides for tumor ablation and reconstructive plates to support fibula free flaps. CT scan data from a patient with an odontogenic keratocyst on the left mandibular ramus were elaborated to produce a virtual surgical plan of mandibular osteotomy in safe tissue for complete ramus resection. The CAD/CAM procedure was used to construct a customized surgical device composed of a cutting guide and a titanium reconstructive bone plate. The cutting guide allowed the surgeon to precisely transfer the virtual planned osteotomy into the surgical environment. The bone plate, including a custom-made anatomical condylar prosthesis, was designed using the outer surface of the healthy side of the mandible to obtain an ideal contour and avoid the bone deformities present on the side affected by the tumor. Operation time was reduced in the demolition and reconstruction phases. Functional and aesthetic outcomes allowed patients to immediately recover their usual appearance and functionality. This new protocol for mandibular reconstruction using CAD/CAM to construct custom-made guides and plates may represent a viable way to reproduce the patient's anatomical contour, give the surgeon better procedural control, and reduce operation time.