Rodallec A, Franco C, Robert S, Sicard G, Giacometti S, Lacarelle B, Bouquet F, Savina A, Lacroix R, Dignat-George F, Ciccolini J, Poncelet P, and Fanciullino R
Scientific reports [Sci Rep] 2020 Mar 05; Vol. 10 (1), pp. 4147. Date of Electronic Publication: 2020 Mar 05.
Developing targeted nanoparticles is a rising strategy to improve drug delivery in oncology. Antibodies are the most commonly used targeting agents. However, determination of their optimal number at the surface remains a challenging issue, mainly due to the difficulties in measuring precisely surface coating levels when prototyping nanoparticles. We developed an original quantitative assay to measure the exact number of coated antibodies per nanoparticle. Using flow cytometry optimized for submicron particle analysis and beads covered with known amounts of human IgG-kappa mimicking various amounts of antibodies, this new method was tested as part of the prototyping of docetaxel liposomes coated with trastuzumab against Her2+ breast cancer. This quantification method allowed to discriminate various batches of immunoliposomes depending on their trastuzumab density on nanoparticle surface (i.e., 330 (Immunoliposome-1), 480 (Immunoliposome-2) and 690 (Immunoliposome-3), p = 0.004, One-way ANOVA). Here we showed that optimal number of grafted antibodies on nanoparticles should be finely tuned and highest density of targeting agent is not necessarily associated with highest efficacy. Overall, this new method should help to better prototype third generation nanoparticles.
Skliutas E, Lebedevaite M, Kasetaite S, Rekštytė S, Lileikis S, Ostrauskaite J, and Malinauskas M
Scientific reports [Sci Rep] 2020 Jun 16; Vol. 10 (1), pp. 9758. Date of Electronic Publication: 2020 Jun 16.
Materials obtained from renewable sources are emerging to replace the starting materials of petroleum-derived plastics. They offer easy processing, fulfill technological, functional and durability requirements at the same time ensuring increased bio-compatibility, recycling, and eventually lower cost. On the other hand, optical 3D printing (O3DP) is a rapid prototyping tool (and an additive manufacturing technique) being developed as a choice for efficient and low waste production method, yet currently associated with mainly petroleum-derived resins. Here we employ a single bio-based resin derived from soy beans, suitable for O3DP in the scales from nano- to macro-dimensions, which can be processed even without the addition of photoinitiator. The approach is validated using both state-of-the art laser nanolithography setup as well as a widespread table-top 3D printer - sub-micrometer accuracy 3D objects are fabricated reproducibly. Additionally, chess-like figures are made in an industrial line commercially delivering small batch production services. Such concept is believed to make a breakthrough in rapid prototyping by switching the focus of O3DP to bio-based resins instead of being restricted to conventional petroleum-derived photopolymers.
Foresti R, Rossi S, Pinelli S, Alinovi R, Sciancalepore C, Delmonte N, Selleri S, Caffarra C, Raposio E, Macaluso G, Macaluso C, Freyrie A, Miragoli M, and Perini P
Scientific reports [Sci Rep] 2020 Feb 21; Vol. 10 (1), pp. 3205. Date of Electronic Publication: 2020 Feb 21.
The design of 3D complex structures enables new correlation studies between the engineering parameters and the biological activity. Moreover, additive manufacturing technology could revolutionise the personalised medical pre-operative management due to its possibility to interplay with computer tomography. Here we present a method based on rapid freeze prototyping (RFP) 3D printer, reconstruction cutting, nano dry formulation, fast freeze gelation, disinfection and partial processes for the 5D digital models functionalisation. We elaborated the high-resolution computer tomography scan derived from a complex human peripheral artery and we reconstructed the 3D model of the vessel in order to obtain and verify the additive manufacturing processes. Then, based on the drug-eluting balloon selected for the percutaneous intervention, we reconstructed the biocompatible eluting-freeform coating containing 40 nm fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) by means of RFP printer and we tested the in-vivo feasibility. We introduced the NPs-loaded 5D device in a rat's vena cava. The coating dissolved in a few minutes releasing NPs which were rapidly absorbed in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) in-vitro. We developed 5D high-resolution self-dissolving devices incorporating NPs with the perspective to apply this method to the personalised medicine.
de Almeida Monteiro Melo Ferraz M, Nagashima JB, Venzac B, Le Gac S, and Songsasen N
Scientific reports [Sci Rep] 2020 Jan 22; Vol. 10 (1), pp. 994. Date of Electronic Publication: 2020 Jan 22.
The introduction of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and soft lithography in the 90's has revolutionized the field of microfluidics by almost eliminating the need for a clean-room environment for device fabrication. More recently, 3D printing has been introduced to fabricate molds for soft lithography, the only step for which a clean-room environment is still often necessary, to further support the rapid prototyping of PDMS microfluidic devices. However, toxicity of most of the commercial 3D printing resins has been established, and little is known regarding the potential for 3D printed molds to leak components into the PDMS that would, in turn, hamper cells and/or tissues cultured in the devices. In the present study, we investigated if 3D printed molds produced by stereolithography can leach components into PDMS, and compared 3D printed molds to their more conventional SU-8 counterparts. Different leachates were detected in aqueous solutions incubated in the resulting PDMS devices prepared from widely used PDMS pre-polymer:curing agent ratios (10:1, 15:1 and 20:1), and these leachates were identified as originating from resins and catalyst substances. Next, we explored the possibility to culture cells and tissues in these PDMS devices produced from 3D printed molds and after proper device washing and conditioning. Importantly, we demonstrated that the resulting PDMS devices supported physiological cultures of HeLa cells and ovarian tissues in vitro, with superior outcomes than static conventional cultures.
Zhao L, Xiu J, Liu Y, Zhang T, Pan W, Zheng X, and Zhang X
Scientific reports [Sci Rep] 2019 Dec 23; Vol. 9 (1), pp. 19717. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Dec 23.
Compared with traditional monolayer cell culture, the three-dimensional tumor spheroid has emerged as an essential in vitro model for cancer research due to the recapitulation of the architecture and physiology of solid human tumors. Herein, by implementing the rapid prototyping of a benchtop 3D printer, we developed a new strategy to generate and analyze tumor spheroids on a commonly used multi-well plate. In this method, the printed artifact can be directly mounted on a 96/384-well plate, enables hanging drop-based spheroid formation, avoiding the tedious fabrication process from micromechanical systems. Besides long-term spheroid culture (20 days), this method supports subsequent analysis of tumor spheroid by seamlessly dripping from the printed array, thereby eliminating the need for spheroids retrieval for downstream characterization. We demonstrated several tumor spheroid-based assays, including tumoroid drug testing, metastasis on or inside extracellular matrix gel, and tumor transendothelial (TEM) assay. Based on quantitative phenotypical and molecular analysis without any precarious retrieval and transfer, we found that the malignant breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell aggregate presents a more metastatic morphological phenotype than the non-malignant breast cancer (MCF-7) and colonial cancer (HCT-116) cell spheroid, and shows an up-regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) relevant genes (fold change > 2). Finally, we validated this tumor malignancy by the TEM assay, which could be easily performed using our approach. This methodology could provide a useful workflow for expediting tumoroid modeled in vitro assay, allowing the "Lab-on-a-Cloud" scenario for routine study.
Scientific reports [Sci Rep] 2019 Nov 25; Vol. 9 (1), pp. 17467. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Nov 25.
The healthcare system is undergoing a noticeable transformation from a reactive, post-disease treatment to a preventive, predictive continuous healthcare. The key enabler for such a system is a pervasive wearable platform. Several technologies have been suggested and implemented as a wearable platform, but these technologies either lack reliability, manufacturing practicability or pervasiveness. We propose a screen-printed circuit board on bio-degradable hydrocolloid dressings, which are medically used and approved, as a platform for wearable biomedical sensors to overcome the aforementioned problems. We experimentally characterize and prepare the surface of the hydrocolloid and demonstrate high-quality screen-printed passive elements and interconnects on its surface using conductive silver paste. We also propose appropriate models of the thick-film screen-printed passives, validated through measurements and FEM simulations. We further elucidate on the usage of the hydrocolloid dressing by prototyping a Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) sensor and a humidity sensor using printed spiral inductors and interdigital capacitors, respectively.
Scientific reports [Sci Rep] 2019 Nov 01; Vol. 9 (1), pp. 15832. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Nov 01.
The invention and advancement of biological microscopy depends critically on an ability to accurately simulate imaging of complex biological structures embedded within complex scattering media. Unfortunately no technique exists for rigorous simulation of the complete imaging process, including the source, instrument, sample and detector. Monte-Carlo modelling is the gold standard for the modelling of light propagation in tissue, but is somewhat laborious to implement and does not incorporate the rejection of scattered light by the microscope. On the other hand microscopes may be rigorously and rapidly modelled using commercial ray-tracing software, but excluding the interaction with the biological sample. We report a hybrid Monte-Carlo optical ray-tracing technique for modelling of complete imaging systems of arbitrary complexity. We make the software available to enable user-friendly and rigorous virtual prototyping of biological microscopy of arbitrary complexity involving light scattering, fluorescence, polarised light propagation, diffraction and coherence. Examples are presented for the modelling and optimisation of representative imaging of neural cells using light-sheet and micro-endoscopic fluorescence microscopy and imaging of retinal vasculature using confocal and non-confocal scanning-laser ophthalmoscopes.
Scientific reports [Sci Rep] 2019 Aug 21; Vol. 9 (1), pp. 12188. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Aug 21.
Azimuthal beam scanning eliminates the uneven excitation field arising from laser interference in through-objective total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. The same principle can be applied to scanning angle interference microscopy (SAIM), where precision control of the scanned laser beam presents unique technical challenges for the builders of custom azimuthal scanning microscopes. Accurate synchronization between the instrument computer, beam scanning system and excitation source is required to collect high quality data and minimize sample damage in SAIM acquisitions. Drawing inspiration from open-source prototyping systems, like the Arduino microcontroller boards, we developed a new instrument control platform to be affordable, easily programmed, and broadly useful, but with integrated, precision analog circuitry and optimized firmware routines tailored to advanced microscopy. We show how the integration of waveform generation, multiplexed analog outputs, and native hardware triggers into a single central hub provides a versatile platform for performing fast circle-scanning acquisitions, including azimuthal scanning SAIM and multiangle TIRF. We also demonstrate how the low communication latency of our hardware platform can reduce image intensity and reconstruction artifacts arising from synchronization errors produced by software control. Our complete platform, including hardware design, firmware, API, and software, is available online for community-based development and collaboration.
Qie Z, Huang Z, Gao Z, Meng W, Zhu Y, Xiao R, and Wang S
Scientific reports [Sci Rep] 2019 Aug 12; Vol. 9 (1), pp. 11630. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Aug 12.
Accurate and comprehensive immunochromatographic assay (ICA) data are urgently required in the daily supervision of plants, schools, testing institutions, and law-enforcing departments. Through pretreatment-integration and device-facilitated operation, a quantitative ICA with high sensitivity and throughput was realized on the basis of a commercialized semi-quantitative ICA strip. Three pretreatment methods, namely, acid base, heavy metal salt, and organic solvent methods, have less than three steps. The pretreatment was established for protein removal. A total of 17 pretreated ICA items in milk were considered for the identification of the most suitable pretreatment method. The items are composed of six items pretreated by the acid-base method, six by the heavy salt method, and five by the organic solvent method. Then, the ICA results with pretreatment were compared with those without pretreatment. After pretreatment, the signal intensity increased by 39%, the detection limit decreased to 12%, the half maximal inhibitory concentration decreased to 18%, and the detection range increased fourfold. A device with mixing and centrifugation functions was designed for the pretreatment-related operations. A pre-incubation sampling device was used to facilitate incubation in batch and high-throughput detection. An ICA reader was used. The detection throughput reached 8 samples per batch or 32 samples per hour. The designed devices were printed through 3D printing and rapid prototyping.