Kang, Yun Gyeong, Shin, Ji Won, Park, So Hee, Kim, Young Mi, Gu, Seo Rin, Wu, Yanru, Ban, Hun Yeong, and Shin, Jung-Woog
Biotechnology letters, 2016 Jan., v. 38, no. 1, p. 175-181.
extracellular matrix, umbilical cord, stem cells, biomimetics, phenotype, and blood
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expansion of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) from umbilical cord blood using extracellular matrix (ECM) protein-coated three-dimensional hierarchical scaffolds. RESULTS: The expansion of HSPCs was evaluated through total nucleated cell (TNC) expansion, immuno-phenotypic analysis, and clonogenic ability. After 7 days of culture, three-dimensional cultures with fibronectin-coated scaffolds achieved the highest fold increase in TNCs (164 ± 6.9 fold) and the highest CD45⁺CD34⁺ (35 %) and CD34⁺CD38⁻ (32 %) ratios. CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional hierarchical scaffolds were coated with ECM protein to simulate a biomimetic environment or niche, and had a significant effect on the expansion potential of HSPCs without changing their phenotype.
Fabrication of new biodegradable scaffolds that guide and stimulate tissue regeneration is still a major issue in tissue engineering approaches. Scaffolds that possess adequate biodegradability, pore size, interconnectivity, bioactivity and mechanical properties in accordance with the injured tissue are required. This work aimed to develop and characterize three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds that fulfill the aforementioned requirements. For this, a nozzle-based rapid prototyping system was used to combine polylactic acid and a bioactive CaP glass to fabricate 3-D biodegradable scaffolds with two patterns (orthogonal and displaced double layer). Scanning electron microscopy and micro-computer tomography showed that 3-D scaffolds had completely interconnected porosity, uniform distribution of the glass particles, and a controlled and repetitive architecture. Surface properties were also assessed, showing that the incorporation of glass particles increased both the roughness and the hydrophilicity of the scaffolds. Mechanical tests indicated that compression strength is dependent on the scaffold geometry and the presence of glass. Preliminary cell response was studied with primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and revealed that CaP glass improved cell adhesion. Overall, the results showed the suitability of the technique/materials combination to develop 3-D porous scaffolds and their initial biocompatibility, both being valuable characteristics for tissue engineering applications.
Chen, S.-H., Wang, X.-L., Xie, X.-H., Zheng, L.-Z., Yao, D., Wang, D.-P., Leng, Y., Zhang, G., and Qin, L.
Acta Biomaterialia, 2012 Aug., v. 8, no. 8, p. 3128-3137.
calcium, messenger RNA, rabbits, genes, orthopedics, bone formation, bioengineering, bioactive properties, gene expression regulation, bone marrow, stem cells, mineralization, cultured cells, gene expression, and tricalcium phosphate
A local delivery system with sustained and efficient release of therapeutic agents from an appropriate carrier is desirable for orthopedic applications. Novel composite scaffolds made of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) with tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/TCP) were fabricated by an advanced low-temperature rapid prototyping technique, which incorporated either endogenous bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) (PLGA/TCP/BMP-2) or phytomolecule icaritin (ICT) (PLGA/TCP/ICT) at low, middle and high doses. PLGA/TCP served as control. In vitro degradation, osteogenesis and release tests showed statistical differences among PLGA/TCP/ICT, PLGA/TCP and PLGA/TCP/BMP-2 groups, where PLGA/TCP/ICT had the desired slow release of bioactive icaritin in a dose-dependent manner, whereas there was almost no BMP-2 release from the PLGA/TCP/BMP-2 scaffolds. PLGA/TCP/ICT significantly increased more ALP activity, upregulated mRNA expression of osteogenic genes and enhanced calcium deposition and mineralization in rabbit bone marrow stem cells cultured on scaffolds compared with the other two groups. These results indicate the desired degradation rate, osteogenic capability and release property in PLGA/TCP/ICT composite scaffold, as icaritin preserved its bioactivity and structure after incorporation, while PLGA/TCP/BMP-2 did not show an initially expected osteogenic potential, owing to loss of the original bioactivity of BMP-2 during its incorporation and fabrication procedure. The results suggest that PLGA/TCP composite scaffolds incorporating osteogenic ICT might be a promising approach for bone tissue bioengineering and regeneration.
Seyednejad, Hajar, Gawlitta, Debby, Dhert, Wouter J.A., van Nostrum, Cornelus F., Vermonden, Tina, and Hennink, Wim E.
Acta Biomaterialia, 2011 May, v. 7, no. 5, p. 1999-2006.
tissue engineering, polyesters, cell viability, stem cells, mechanical properties, cultured cells, humans, bone formation, and porosity
At present there is a strong need for suitable scaffolds that meet the requirements for bone tissue engineering applications. The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of porous scaffolds based on a hydroxyl functionalized polymer, poly(hydroxymethylglycolide-co-ε-caprolactone) (pHMGCL), for tissue engineering. In a recent study this polymer was shown to be a promising material for bone regeneration. The scaffolds consisting of pHMGCL or poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) were produced by means of a rapid prototyping technique (three-dimensional plotting) and were shown to have a high porosity and an interconnected pore structure. The thermal and mechanical properties of both scaffolds were investigated and human mesenchymal stem cells were seeded onto the scaffolds to evaluate the cell attachment properties, as well as cell viability and differentiation. It was shown that the cells filled the pores of the pHMGCL scaffold within 7days and displayed increased metabolic activity when compared with cells cultured in PCL scaffolds. Importantly, pHMGCL scaffolds supported osteogenic differentiation. Therefore, scaffolds based on pHMGCL are promising templates for bone tissue engineering applications.