The temperature dependence of surface tension and density for Fe–Cr–Mo (AISI 4142), Fe–Cr–Ni (AISI 304), and Fe–Cr–Mn–Ni TRIP/TWIP high-manganese (16 wt% Cr, 7 wt% Mn, and 3–9 wt% Ni) liquid alloys are investigated using the conventional maximum bubble pressure (MBP) and sessile drop (SD) methods. In addition, the surface tension of liquid steel is measured using the oscillating droplet method on electromagnetically levitated (EML) liquid droplets at the German Aerospace Centre (DLR, Cologne). The data of thermophysical properties for Fe–Cr–Mn–Ni is of major importance for modeling of infiltration and gas atomization processes in the prototyping of a “TRIP-Matrix-Composite.” The surface tension of TRIP/TWIP steel increased with an increase in temperature in MBP as well as in SD measurement. The manganese evaporation with the conventional measurement methods is not significantly high within the experiments (∆Mₙ < 0.5 %). The temperature coefficient of surface tension (dσ/dT) is positive for liquid steel samples, which can be explained by the concentration of surface active elements. A slight influence of nickel on the surface tension of Fe–Cr–Mn–Ni steel was experimentally observed where σ is decreased with increasing nickel content. EML measurement of high-manganese steel, however, is limited to the undercooling state of the liquid steel. The manganese evaporation strongly increased in excess of the liquidus temperature in levitation measurements and a mass loss of droplet of 5 % was observed.
Chemical engineering science, 2011 Sept. 1, v. 66, no. 17, p. 3829-3835.
viscosity, chemical engineering, calcium alginate, pH, hydrocolloids, and droplets
The feasibility of using drop-on-demand inkjet technology for the fabrication of calcium alginate hydrogel microcapsules containing dispersed sub-micron solid particles (TiO₂ photocatalyst) was demonstrated. The influence of the printed solution viscosity on the micro-droplet size has been investigated and a study of the effect of solids fraction in the suspension on its printability was carried out. It was found that solutions with viscosities of up to 28mPas and solids content of up to 7.8vol% can be reproducibly printed, resulting in droplets ranging from 45 to 105μm depending on the inkjet operating conditions. In order to ensure stable and reproducible droplet formation, a pressure difference ranging from −200 to −1800Pa had to be maintained in the nozzle. A uniform distribution of dispersed solids in the resulting microcapsules was achieved by adjusting pH and viscosity. The relationship between the printhead operating pressure, the fluid viscosity, the solids loading and the final size of the obtained microcapsules was established, allowing rapid prototyping of artificial cell-like structures with internal solid inclusions by the inkjet method.
We report on a droplet-producing microfluidic system with electrical impedance-based detection. The microfluidic devices are made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and glass with thin film electrodes connected to an impedance-monitoring circuit. Immiscible fluids containing the hydrophobic and hydrophilic phases are injected with syringe pumps and spontaneously break into water-in-oil droplet trains. When a droplet passes between a pair of electrodes in a medium having different electrical conductivity, the resulting impedance change signals the presence of the particle for closed-loop feedback during processing. The circuit produces a digital pulse for input into a computer control system. The droplet detector allows estimation of a droplet's arrival time at the microfluidic chip outlet for dispensing applications. Droplet detection is required in applications that count, sort, and direct microfluidic droplets. Because of their low cost and simplicity, microelectrode-based droplet detection techniques should find applications in digital microfluidics and in three-dimensional printing technology for rapid prototyping and biotechnology.