Blum, David, Jorissen, Filip, Huang, Sen, Arroyo, Javier, Benne, Kyle, Li, Yanfei, Gavan, Valentin, Rivalin, Lisa, Helsen, Lieve, Vrabie, Draguna, Wetter, Michael, and Sofos, Marina
Advanced control strategies are becoming increasinglynecessary in buildings in order to meet and balancerequirements for energy efficiency, demand flexibility,and occupant comfort. Additional development andwidespread adoption of emerging control strategies,however, ultimately require low implementation costs toreduce payback period and verified performance to gaincontrol vendor, building owner, and operator trust. Thisis difficult in an already first-cost driven and risk-averseindustry. Recent innovations in building simulation cansignificantly aid in meeting these requirements andspurring innovation at early stages of development byevaluating performance, comparing state-of-the-art tonew strategies, providing installation experience, andtesting controller implementations. This paper presentsthe development of a simulation framework consisting oftest cases and software platform for the testing ofadvanced control strategies (BOPTEST - BuildingOptimization Performance Test). The objectives andrequirements of the framework, components of a test case,and proposed software platform architecture aredescribed, and the framework is demonstrated with aprototype implementation and example test case.
Ma, Kristin R, Juran, Cassandra M, and Almeida, Eduardo
American Society for Gravitational and Space Research (ASGSR) 2019; Nov 20, 2019 - Nov 23, 2019; Denver, CO; United States
The NASA Bioculture System is an advanced cell culture closed-loop system containing highly automated flowpaths designed to conduct long term biology experiments on ISS with earth remote controllable medium flow, temperature, gas composition, medium exchange, cell sampling and fixation. This technology was already demonstrated with successful cardiomyocyte and osteocyte cultures experiments onboard the ISS and is now supporting NASA PI science. The Bioculture System, however, can only support 10 cassettes with disposable flowpaths, each containing a single hollow fiber bioreactor with a culture capacity of about 2ml. This constraint not only severely limits the number of investigators that can conduct experiments in space, but also subjects the experiments to limitations in the number of replicates and conditions that can be studied. To address these limitations, we sought a novel design solution to maximize the number of separate bioreactor cultures and volume that can be conducted simultaneously. To this end we designed, prototyped, and are now testing a six-Vitvo 3D Matrix 2ml bioreactor insert that replaces the conventional Bioculture System hollow fiber bioreactor. This design will allow the Bioculture System to support up to 60 different bioreactors and samples at once. Specifically, the novel gas-tight containment housing insert contains six COTS Rigenerand VITVO bioreactors stacked on each side of a heat sink powered by the existing heating element and pair of temperature sensors. Medium will be distributed into each bioreactor's cell-free chamber via its built-in Luer connector, then across the 3D matrix to the cell chamber, dissipating laminar flow and limiting fluid shear stresses that might mechanostimulate cell cultures. Gas (5% CO2 in air) will be supplied directly to the bioreactor gas-tight housing for exchange via the bioreactor flat-surface gas-permeable membranes, eliminating the need for the existing Bioculture System cassette oxygenator. If successfully implemented on ISS, this new multi-bioreactor insert for the Bioculture System has the potential to make real-time cell science experimentation in space more efficient and accessible to more investigators.
Lifson, Miles T, Kopardekar, Parimal H, Nag, Sreeja, Marker, Nimesh A, and Murakami, David D
International Astronautical Congress (IAC) Conference; Oct 21, 2019 - Oct 25, 2019; Washington, DC; United States
Space Transportation and Safety
Current state of the art in Space Traffic Management (STM) relies on a handful of providers for surveillance and collision prediction, and manual coordination between operators. Neither is scalable to support the expected 10x increase in spacecraft population in less than 10 years, nor does it support automated manuever planning. We present a software prototype of an STM architecture based on open Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), drawing on previous work by NASA to develop an architecture for low-altitude Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management. The STM architecture is designed to provide structure to the interactions between spacecraft operators, various regulatory bodies, and service suppliers, while maintaining flexibility of these interactions and the ability for new market participants to enter easily. Autonomy is an indispensable part of the proposed architecture in enabling efficient data sharing, coordination between STM participants and safe flight operations. Examples of autonomy within STM include syncing multiple non-authoritative catalogs of resident space objects, or determining which spacecraft maneuvers when preventing impending conjunctions between multiple spacecraft. The STM prototype is based on modern micro-service architecture adhering to OpenAPI standards and deployed in industry standard Docker containers, facilitating easy communication between different participants or services. The system architecture is designed to facilitate adding and replacing services with minimal disruption. We have implemented some example participant services (e.g. a space situational awareness provider/SSA, a conjunction assessment supplier/CAS, an automated maneuver advisor/AMA) within the prototype. Different services, with creative algorithms folded into then, can fulfil similar functional roles within the STM architecture by flexibly connecting to it using pre-defined APIs and data models, thereby lowering the barrier to entry of new players in the STM marketplace. We demonstrate the STM prototype on a multiple conjunction scenario with multiple maneuverable spacecraft, where an example CAS and AMA can recommend optimal maneuvers to the spacecraft operators, based on a predefined reward function. Such tools can intelligently search the space of potential collision avoidance maneuvers with varying parameters like lead time and propellant usage, optimize a customized reward function, and be implemented as a scheduling service within the STM architecture. The case study shows an example of autonomous maneuver planning is possible using the API-based framework. As satellite populations and predicted conjunctions increase, an STM architecture can facilitate seamless information exchange related to collision prediction and mitigation among various service applications on different platforms and servers. The availability of such an STM network also opens up new research topics on satellite maneuver planning, scheduling and negotiation across disjoint entities.
Imagine standing on the surface of an alien planet or satellite. High in the sky, a soft breeze is interrupted by the whistling sound of a tiny probe sent from Earth to study the atmosphere, or to land on some high-value target on the surface. Now imagine that this probe is followed by a dozen others, all entering in distributed locations throughout the geographic landscape. These probes are systematically and methodically being released from an orbiting spacecraft, perhaps having arrived months in advance. Or maybe the probes themselves are released systematically months in advance by and approaching mother-ship. Although probes have been sent to celestial neighbors before, what is unique is that these new vehicles had their genesis on the highly popular Cubesat specification My dream is to make spaceflight so mundane, we can actually routinely leave the bounds of our planet to explore en masse our solar system. For that, we must create systems that allow us to bring space exploration within the realm of our everyday lives. No longer exquisite systems but just good enough, where failure is an option and a new opportunity.
Chung, Philip, Heller, J Alex, Etemadi, Mozziyar, Ottoson, Paige E, Liu, Jonathan A, Rand, Larry, and Roy, Shuvo
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE, iss 88
Vagina, Humans, Silicone Elastomers, Equipment and Supplies, Computer-Aided Design, Female, Printing, Three-Dimensional, Bioengineering, Issue 88, liquid injection molding, reaction injection molding, molds, 3D printing, fused deposition modeling, rapid prototyping, medical devices, low cost, low volume, rapid turnaround time, Cognitive Sciences, Biochemistry and Cell Biology, and Psychology
Biologically inert elastomers such as silicone are favorable materials for medical device fabrication, but forming and curing these elastomers using traditional liquid injection molding processes can be an expensive process due to tooling and equipment costs. As a result, it has traditionally been impractical to use liquid injection molding for low-cost, rapid prototyping applications. We have devised a method for rapid and low-cost production of liquid elastomer injection molded devices that utilizes fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as an injection system. Low costs and rapid turnaround time in this technique lower the barrier to iteratively designing and prototyping complex elastomer devices. Furthermore, CAD models developed in this process can be later adapted for metal mold tooling design, enabling an easy transition to a traditional injection molding process. We have used this technique to manufacture intravaginal probes involving complex geometries, as well as overmolding over metal parts, using tools commonly available within an academic research laboratory. However, this technique can be easily adapted to create liquid injection molded devices for many other applications.
The internship was located at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Innovation Design Center (IDC), which is a facility where the JSC workforce can meet and conduct hands-on innovative design, fabrication, evaluation, and testing of ideas and concepts relevant to NASA's mission. The tasks of the internship included mechanical prototyping design and manufacturing projects in service of research and development as well as assisting the users of the IDC in completing their manufacturing projects. The first project was to manufacture hatch mechanisms for a team in the Systems Engineering and Project Advancement Program (SETMAP) hexacopter competition. These mechanisms were intended to improve the performance of the servomotors and offer an access point that would also seal to prevent cross-contamination. I also assisted other teams as they were constructing and modifying their hexacopters. The success of this competition demonstrated a proof of concept for aerial reconnaissance and sample return to be potentially used in future NASA missions. I also worked with Dr. Kumar Krishen to prototype an improved thermos and a novel, portable solar array. Computer-aided design (CAD) software was used to model the parts for both of these projects. Then, 3D printing as well as conventional techniques were used to produce the parts. These prototypes were then subjected to trials to determine the success of the designs. The solar array is intended to work in a cluster that is easy to set up and take down and doesn't require powered servomechanisms. It could be used terrestrially in areas not serviced by power grids. Both projects improve planetary exploration capabilities to future astronauts. Other projects included manufacturing custom rail brackets for EG-2, assisting engineers working on underwater instrument and tool cases for the NEEMO project, and helping to create mock-up parts for Space Center Houston. The use of the IDC enabled efficient completion of these projects at significantly reduced cost. I acquired and improved manufacturing and prototyping skills during my tour including learning about a CAD (Computer-Aided Design) program called Creo (Creo Parametric; design software), gaining valuable conventional machining experience with lathes, CNC (Computer Numerical Control) milling machines and various other tools, and improving my engineering project communication and collaboration skills. The internship also allowed me to better understand operations at NASA. I plan to work in the aerospace industry or do academic research benefitting space science and exploration, and this internship experience will enable me to have insight into manufacturing processes for research and development.
EV3 Branch Meeting; 2 Dec. 2015; Houston, TX; United States
Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
This fall I worked in EV3 within NASA's Johnson Space Center in The HIVE (Human Integrated Vehicles & Environments). The HIVE is responsible for human in the loop testing, getting new technologies in front of astronauts, operators, and users early in the development cycle to make the interfaces more human friendly. Some projects the HIVE is working on includes user interfaces for future spacecraft, wearables to alert astronauts about important information, and test beds to simulate mock missions. During my internship I created a prototype for T-38 aircraft displays using LabVIEW, learned how to use microcontrollers, and helped out with other small tasks in the HIVE. The purpose of developing a prototype for T-38 Displays in LabVIEW is to analyze functions of the display such as navigation in a cost and time effective manner. The LabVIEW prototypes allow Ellington Field AOD to easily make adjustments to the display before hardcoding the final product. LabVIEW was used to create a user interface for simulation almost identical to the real aircraft display. Goals to begin the T-38 PFD (Primary Flight Display) prototype included creating a T-38 PFD hardware display in a software environment, designing navigation for the menu's, incorporating vertical and horizontal navigation bars, and to add a heading bug for compass controls connected to the HSI (Horizontal Situation Indicator). To get started with the project, measurements of the entire display were taken. This enabled an accurate model of the hardware display to be created. Navigation of menu's required some exploration of different buttons on the display. The T-38 simulator and aircraft were used for examining the display. After one piece of the prototype was finished, another trip of to the simulator took place. This was done until all goals for the prototype were complete. Some possible integration ideas for displays in the near future are autopilot selection, touch screen displays, and crew member preferences. Complete navigation, control, and function customization will be achievable once a display is fully developed. Other than the T-38 prototyping, I spent time learning how to design small circuits and write code for them to function. This was done by adding electronic circuit components to breadboard and microcontroller then writing code to speak to those components through the microcontroller. I went through an Arduino starter kit to build circuits and code software that allowed the hardware to act. This work was planned to assist in a lighting project this fall but another solution was discovered for the lighting project. Other tasks that I assisted with, included hands on work such as mock-up construction/removal, logic analyzer repairs, and soldering with circuits. The unique opportunity to be involved work with NASA has significantly changed my educational and career goals. This opportunity has only opened the door to my career with engineering. I have learned over the span of this internship that I am fascinated by the type of work that NASA does. My desire to work in the aerospace industry has increased immensely. I hope to return to NASA to be more involved in the advancement of science, engineering, and spaceflight. My interests for my future education and career lie in NASAs work - pioneering the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research.
Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes 4 – Conference Proceedings, vol 1, iss 1
Active optics, adaptive optics, Giant Magellan Telescope, phasing, and dispersed fringe sensor
The future diffraction-limited performance of the 25.4 meter Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will rely on the activeand adaptive wavefront sensing measurements made by the Acquisition, Guiding, and Wavefront Sensor (AGWS)currently being designed by SAO. One subsystem of the AGWS, the phasing camera, will be responsible for measuringthe piston phase difference between the seven GMT primary/secondary segment pairs to 50 nm accuracy with full skycoverage using natural guide stars that are 6-10 arcmin off-axis while the on-axis light is used for science operations.The phasing camera will use a dispersed fringe sensor to measure the phase difference in rectangular subaperturesspanning the gaps between adjacent mirror segments. The large gap between segments (>295 mm, compared to 3 mmfor the Keck telescope) reduces the coherence of light across the subapertures, making this problem particularlychallenging. In support of the AGWS phasing camera technical goals, SAO has undertaken a series of prototypingefforts at the Magellan 6.5 meter Clay telescope to demonstrate the dispersed fringe sensor technology and validateatmospheric models. Our latest on-sky test, completed in December 2015, employs a dual-band (I and J) dispersedfringe sensor. This prototype uses an adaptive optics corrected beam from the Magellan AO adaptive secondary system.The system operates both on-axis and 6 arcmin off-axis from the natural guide star feeding the MagAO wavefrontsensor. This on-sky data will inform the development of the AGWS phasing camera design towards the GMT first light.