Bailey, Brian, Biehl, Jacob, Cook, Damon, and Metcalf, Heather
Personal & Ubiquitous Computing. Mar2008, Vol. 12 Issue 3, p269-277. 9p. 4 Color Photographs.
PROTOTYPES, RAPID prototyping, COMPUTER interfaces, WEB design, and MANUFACTURING processes
A multiple display environment (MDE) networks personal and shared devices to form a virtual workspace, and designers are just beginning to grapple with the challenges of developing interfaces tailored for these environments. To develop effective interfaces for MDEs, designers must employ methods that allow them to rapidly generate and test alternative designs early in the design process. Paper prototyping offers one promising method, but needs to be adapted to effectively simulate the use of multiple displays and allow testing with groups of users. In this paper, we share experiences from two projects in which paper prototyping was utilized to explore interfaces for MDEs. We identify problems encountered when applying the traditional method, describe how these problems were overcome, and distill our experiences into recommendations that others can draw upon. By following our recommendations, designers need only make minor modifications to the existing method to better realize benefits of paper prototyping for MDEs. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea. 2016, Vol. 35 Issue 5, p449-464. 16p.
OLDER automobile drivers, RAPID prototyping, INFORMATION processing, COGNITIVE ability, and MENTAL models theory (Communication)
Objective: The objective of this study is to identify essential requirements of the instrument cluster's features and layout for elderly drivers through interview and paper prototyping. Background: Recent updates implemented in passenger vehicles require more complex information to be processed by drivers. Concurrently, a large portion of the US population, the baby boomer generation has aged, causing their physical and cognitive abilities to deter. Thus it is crucial that new methods be implemented into vehicle design in order to accommodate for the deterioration of mental and physical abilities. Method: Forty elderly drivers and twenty young drivers participated in this study. The test included three sessions including: 1) location value assessment to identify the priority of areas within the instrument cluster; 2) component value assessment to capture rankings of the degree of importance and frequency of use for possible instrument cluster components; and 3) paper prototyping to collect self-designed cluster with selection of designs for each component and location of features from each participant. Results: Results revealed differences in the area priority of the instrument cluster as well as the shape and location of component features for age and gender groups. Conclusion: The study provided insights on instrument cluster layout guidelines by proving elderly driver's mental model and preferred cluster design configurations to improve driving safety. Application: LCD-based vehicle instrument cluster design, with an adaptable feature configuration for cluster components and layouts. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication. Jun2010, Vol. 53 Issue 2, p144-157. 14p.
PROTOTYPES, USER-centered system design, HUMAN-computer interaction, WIREFRAME drawing, and SYSTEM integration
Arguably, usability testing is most effective when integrated into the user-centered design process. One way to encourage this integration is to reemphasize the value of paper prototyping. In a recent test of a university library website, we married low-fidelity paper prototyping with medium-fidelity wireframe prototyping. When user navigation led to nonexisting pages or dead ends, users were encouraged to create what they thought should be where there was nothing. This blank-page technique gave us insights into users' mental models regarding site content and design, providing developers with useful data concerning how users conceptualized information they encountered. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Interacting with Computers. Sep2012, Vol. 24 Issue 5, p351-357. 7p.
SORTING (Electronic computers), COMPUTER users, COMPUTER engineering, MENTAL models theory (Communication), NEAR field communication, COMPUTER simulation, COMPUTER science, and COMPUTER systems
Abstract: Combining the techniques of paper prototyping and card sorting into a single session has the benefits of helping users to understand a new technology on the one hand, and of gaining insight into the users’ mental models of that technology on the other hand. However, acquainting users with a new technology via a paper prototype might affect their mental models, as assessed with the card sorting technique. The aim of this paper was to explore the possibility of combining the two techniques in a single research session. Thirty-seven users participated in a study concerning a payment system based on Near Field Communication (NFC). Eight group sessions were organized, including both a paper prototyping exercise and a card sorting exercise. The order of the exercises was alternated. The findings of this case study seem to suggest that the paper prototyping exercise resulted into deeper insights into the participants’ mental models resulting from the card sorting exercise. At the same time, paper prototyping seemed to prevent participants to come up with new names for their card sorting categories. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]