Yrjönsuuri, Varpu, Kangas, Kaiju, Hakkarainen, Kai, and Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita
Design and Technology Education, v24 n2 2019. 22 pp.
Design, Elementary School Students, Student Projects, Teaching Methods, Cooperative Learning, Video Technology, Models, Foreign Countries, Active Learning, Workshops, Technology Education, Teamwork, Thinking Skills, and Finland (Helsinki)
Co-invention projects in elementary school engage pupils in complex, open-ended design tasks in a practical, hands-on way. Physical materials are an intrinsic part of design, involving trasformation of conceptual ideas into material forms, such as prototypes. These tangible objects mediate embodied thinking and act as material-social mediators of knowledge creation processes. However, the material properties of the designed artifact and pupils' varying skills and levels of material knowledge constrain the design process. While previous studies of materiality in design have mainly focused on adults, this study aims to analyze and describe the different roles of material prototyping in an elementary school collaborative design process. A co-invention process was conducted in a Finnish elementary school during spring 2017, with the task of designing solutions for everyday problems. The data consisted of six video recorded design sessions, where small teams of 5th graders prototyped their inventions. We analyzed the video data across macro-, intermediate-, and micro-levels. The results revealed that pupils used prototypes as mediators for ideation and collaboration. They tested their ideas with prototyping, and material manipulation occurred during collaborative ideation. Material representations supported the verbalization and demonstration of ideas. Some challenges also emerged; prototype construction was a slow and laborious process, the division of labor tended to be unevenly distributed, and the model took a dominant role over the designed artifact. We conclude that support from the teacher and the learning environment is critical for utilizing the full potential of material manipulation in an elementary school setting.
International Journal of Instruction, v12 n3 p271-288 Jul 2019. 18 pp.
English for Academic Purposes, Student Attitudes, Learning Experience, Academic Achievement, Student Needs, Engineering Education, Industrial Education, Learning Motivation, Student Educational Objectives, Foreign Countries, Needs Assessment, Psychological Needs, English Instruction, Instructional Design, College Students, and Indonesia
There are two prominent constraints of students' needs analysis; first, the identification of needs in teaching English for Academic Purposes (EAP) merely focuses on two main dimensions, namely target needs and learning needs, and less to involve affective factors as the basis of all (including learning experience and achievement motivation). Second, there is a common notion that EAP learning is considered the same as general English so that the development of learning design often leads to English for General Academic Purposes (EGAP). This study aims to identify students' perception of learning experience and motivation for the prototype of learners' needs of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) in Industrial engineering. Data were collected from 40 students using three types of questionnaires, namely about learning experiences, learning motivation, and learners' needs. The data of learners' needs was also taken from 8 lecturers as well as program managers. By using quantitative and descriptive analysis, this study showed that first, the students had reasonable learning experience, by being able to participate in the EAP program. Second, the students had strong motivation in achieving their goals. Third, the relationship between learning experience and achievement motivation was not significant and was not quite strong, implying that learning experiences were predicted not to affect students' learning motivation. Fourth, the students' needs lead to English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) which is thus contradictory with the previous notion.
Schaeffer, Jennie Andersson and Palmgren, Marianne
Design and Technology Education, v22 n1 2017. 16 pp.
Novices, Design, Teaching Methods, Context Effect, Workshops, Learning Processes, Competence, Experiential Learning, Information Sources, Undergraduate Study, Foreign Countries, Freehand Drawing, Human Body, Space Utilization, Learning Activities, Museums, and Sweden
In information design education, we strive to find methods that provide students with opportunities to explore different ways of learning and designing. We seek to support development of contextual competences that will be helpful in navigating an unknown future of design in society. A challenge in today's design education is to formulate and use methods that support design students in developing competencies in the space between basic form training and context-rich training. The aim of this study was to evaluate prototyping exercises in design education where the focus was in that in-between space. The study is based on 33 prototyping workshops done between 2008 and 2015 and involving 160 students and two design teachers. Four different approaches to prototyping exercises are described, examined and evaluated: "spatial prototyping," "multi-material prototyping," "physical prototyping," and a mix between the latter two, "physical multi-material prototyping." The results show that the prototyping exercises did support the learning of diverse competencies in the in-between space of basic form training and context training. However, the exercises were also counterproductive and met with different kinds of resistance. The results of the study invite to a dialogue on how different prototyping techniques can stimulate learning in relation to future design competences.
Journal of Character Education, v14 n2 p41-47 2018. 7 pp.
Definitions, Values Education, Classification, Self Concept, Program Descriptions, Content Validity, Models, Ethics, Criticism, and Validity
McGrath presents a prototyping proposal to better classify character education programs. He proposes 7 key elements that can facilitate identifying more and less typical programs. This proposal appears to be a very good start for improving the organization of the character education field and facilitating research. This commentary highlights 4 areas of attention for how this proposal can be carried out. First, it seems important to broaden the degree of participation in a prototyping endeavor so as to include important stakeholders and foster buy-in to support the effort. Second, a prototyping effort is field defining, so the content validity of a prototyping model must be thoroughly vetted by a panel of experts in character education. The best procedure would be an iterative one with attention to how many and which elements should be included. Third, the work of prototyping is quintessentially theoretical in that the definitions of core concepts, their relations, and their application are theoretical questions. The commentary explores key areas for deeper theoretical attention, particularly related to the question of identity development. Finally, empirical testing prior to implementation is necessary to develop confidence in the construct validity of the prototype model. [For McGrath's "What Is Character Education? Development of a Prototype," see EJ1199511.]
This paper examines the development of rapid prototyping and how it affects industrial design students. Using a combination of survey and interview sessions the researcher studied how the development of these technologies affected the creative processes that designers use to develop new products, and whether this has had a positive or negative effect. The results show that the reduction in cost, increase in speed, and increase in dimensional accuracy has influenced many students to look to rapid prototyping/additive manufacturing to produce prototypes, despite production costs still being relatively high. This has led to designers prioritising certain areas of the design process over others, yet to what extent and to what consequences remains to be seen.
E-Learning and Digital Media, v15 n2 p67-92 Mar 2018. 26 pp.
Educational Technology, Technology Uses in Education, Instructional Design, Games, Statistical Analysis, Questionnaires, Behavior, Policy, Individual Characteristics, Attitude Measures, Preferences, Likert Scales, Foreign Countries, Adults, United States, United Kingdom, Italy, Canada, Germany, Netherlands, Denmark, Switzerland, Sweden, India, Greece, Hungary, France, Malaysia, and Norway
This article investigates the phenomenon of open and participative development (e.g. beta testing, Kickstarter projects)--i.e. extended prototyping--in digital entertainment as a potential source of insights for instructional interventions. Despite the increasing popularity of this practice and the potential implications for educators and instructional designers, little efforts have been done in enlightening the topic. This study aims to address this lack by staging a bridge between Instructional Design and Game Design with an empirical inquiry. N:130 subjects (beta testers and Steam Early Access and Kickstarter users) were recruited with a quantitative questionnaire about their contribution to open development instances. Behavioral patterns, effective policies and managements, and subjective profiles and opinions were gathered and tied to instructional design models and concepts. Results point to successful techniques in designing and applying such a process, while mistakes and unproductive tactics are highlighted as well. To summarize, instruction can take advantage of an increased participation of targeted audiences/learners to its development phases. Benefits span transparency, engagement, and commitment. However, poor communication and incoherence between testing and final product may weaken the overall outcome.
Hillaire, Garron, Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Gabrielle, and Ducharme, Kim
Journal of Learning Analytics, v3 n3 p115-142 2016. 28 pp.
Visual Learning, Educational Theories, Visualization, Computer Graphics, Design, Best Practices, Interdisciplinary Approach, Cooperation, Case Studies, Educational Research, Research and Development, Data Analysis, Decision Making, Formative Evaluation, Summative Evaluation, Grade 8, Reading Achievement, Achievement Gap, Disabilities, Middle School Students, and Brainstorming
Prototype work can support the creation of data visualizations throughout the research and development process through paper prototypes with sketching, designed prototypes with graphic design tools, and functional prototypes to explore how the implementation will work. One challenging aspect of data visualization work is coordinating the expertise of people from a variety of roles to produce data visualizations guided by an educational theory informed goal (ETIG) in order to better support research. When collaborating, concessions must be made: typically, everyone seeks to follow the best practices established within their own disciplines. This paper attempts to illustrate how to rethink this interdisciplinary approach to adhere more strictly to educational research goals and consider how we may need to, at times, break away from best practices with the intent to evaluate the novel decisions resulting from this approach. A case study of the creation of a self-reported emotional measure is used to illustrate this type of collaboration. By taking this approach, a clear departure from best practices occurs in the scale selection for the visualization in order to support the ETIG.