SCIENCE teachers, TEACHER training, CHEMISTRY education, HIGH schools, OCCUPATIONAL training, SECONDARY education, EFFECTIVE teaching, HIGH school students, and EDUCATION research
The article discusses studies about developments in professional training of science teachers in high schools in the U.S. A chemistry teacher should have as a minimum, college courses in general inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis and physical chemistry. Organic chemistry is studied because of the basic principles and general information involved and the important role organic substances play in modern life. One of the conclusions reached by the Committee on Preparation of High School Chemistry teachers is that more extensive training and other sciences is urgently needed in many cases and these needs should be met either by decreasing the requirements in educational course, by increasing the number of credits required for graduation.
SCIENTISTS, BIOLOGISTS, BIOLOGICAL research, SCIENTIFIC community, and OXYTETRACYCLINE
The article presents information on scientist Ben A. Sobin and his research achievements. He was born in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1912 and his graduate education took place at Ohio State University. He specialized in chemistry, organic chemistry, bacteriology and biochemistry. Professionally he worked in various organizations and his career with Pfizer Inc. began as chief of biologies control where he attained success in research assignment. One of them was the preparation of the first samples of Terramycin under Sobin's direction.
European Journal of Biochemistry. 1967, Vol. 1 Issue 3, p259-266. 8p.
BIOCHEMISTRY, CHEMICAL abbreviations, NAMES, ORGANIC chemistry, BIOLOGY, CHEMISTRY, and SCIENCE conferences
The Commission on the Nomenclature of Biological Chemistry decided in 1958 that an attempt should be made to standardize the abbreviations and symbols used for chemical names of special interest in biological chemistry. The original draft proposals were based on the notes given at the beginning of each number of the Journal of Biological Chemistry. The problems were discussed fully at the meeting of the commission in Munich in September 1959--and also in joint sessions with the Organic Nomenclature Commission and the Enzyme Commission of the International Union of Biochemistry. A third draft, incorporating the results of the Munich discussions, was widely circulated in December 1959, and many useful comments on this were received.
European Journal of Biochemistry. 1967, Vol. 2 Issue 2, p127-131. 5p.
LIPIDS, NAMES, BIOCHEMISTRY, ORGANIC chemistry, BIOMOLECULES, and STEROIDS
The nomenclature of lipids is the concern both of organic chemists and of biochemists. The systematic names of individual lipids can always be derived by the general rules of organic nomenclature, however, such names are often complex and need to be supplemented by alternative "semi systematic" names as has been done, for steroids and corrinoids. Another problem is that of names for groups of related and homologous compounds including mixtures, such names are hardly ever needed by the pure organic chemist, but are very necessary in biochemical work.
Dell'Antone, Paolo, Colonna, Raffaele, and Azzone, Giovanni Felice
European Journal of Biochemistry. 1972, Vol. 24 Issue 3, p566-576. 11p.
BASIC dyes, CELL membranes, THERMODYNAMICS, ORGANIC chemistry, and MITOCHONDRIA
Three effects concerning the organic cations, the aggregation, the metachromasy and the pKa shift, have been studied in comparison at high dye concentrations, with natural and synthetic polyanions and with energized submitochondrial particles. The metachromatic effect has been obtained by increase of the free cationic dye concentration or by interaction of the dye with natural, synthetic polyanions and energized submitochondrial particles. The metachromatic effect is dependent on the pH of the medium, the presence of ionized acidic groups, and the ionic strength of the medium. The polyanion-induced metachromasy requires the ionization of the acidic groups of the polyelectrolyte. The metachromasy with neutral red requires an acidic pH if induced by increase of the dye concentration or by chondroitin sulphuric acid, whereas it takes place also at alkaline pH if induced by polystyren suiphonic acid or by energized particles. It is inhibited by increase of ionic strength in the case of agar and chondroitin sulphuric acid, but not in the case of the energized particles or polystyrene sulphonic acid. Interaction of neutral red with polystyrene sulphonic acid or energized particles results also in a large apparent pKa shift, which represents the mechanism for obtaining the metachromatic effects at alkaline pH. The apparent pKa, as measured from the extinction of the alkaline band is: 6.0 at 400µM neutral red, 6.7 at 20 µM neutral red, 7.0 with chondroitin sulphuric acid, 7.1 with the deenergized particles, 8.0 with polystyrene sulphonic acid and 8.1 with energized particles. From thermodynamic considerations it is suggested that the pKa shift requires a decrease of the activity coefficient of the dye following the formation of ion pairs with anionic groups of the membrane. The pKa shift may be taken as a tool for discriminating between a dyeinduced and a membrane-induced metachromatic effect. A model is proposed for the energized membrane, based upon electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions of the cationic dyes with a layer of oriented nucleophilic sites in an environment of intermediate polarity. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]