Sambhu N Datta, Carl O Trindle, Francesc Illas, Sambhu N Datta, Carl O Trindle, and Francesc Illas
Magnetochemistry, Molecular orbitals, and Molecules--Magnetic properties
Organic materials with extraordinary magnetic properties promise a wide range of light, flexible, and inexpensive alternatives to familiar metal-based magnets. Individual organic molecules with high magnetic moments will be the foundation for design and fabrication of these materials.This book provides a systematic understanding of the structure and properties of organic magnetic molecules. After a summary of the phenomenon of magnetism at the molecular level, it presents a survey of the challenges to theoretical description and evaluation of the magnetic character of open-shell molecules, and an overview of recently developed methods and their successes and shortfalls. Several fields of application, including very strong organic molecular magnets and photo-magnetic switches, are surveyed. Finally, discussions on metal-based materials and simultaneously semiconducting and ferromagnetic extended systems and solids point the way toward future advances.The reader will find a comprehensive discourse on current understanding of magnetic molecules, a thorough survey of computational methods of characterizing known and imagined molecules, simple rules for design of larger magnetic systems, and a guide to opportunities for progress toward organic magnets.
Veronique Gouverneur, Klaus Muller, Veronique Gouverneur, and Klaus Muller
Fluorine and Pharmaceutical chemistry
Fluorine chemistry is an expanding area of research that is attracting international interest, due to the impact of fluorine in drug discovery and in clinical and molecular imaging (e.g. PET, MRI). Many researchers and academics are entering this area of research, while scientists in industrial and clinical environments are also indirectly exposed to fluorine chemistry through the use of fluorinated compounds for imaging.This book provides an overview of the impact that fluorine has made in the life sciences. In the first section, the emphasis is on how fluorine substitution of amino acids, peptides, nucleobases and carbohydrates can provide invaluable information at a molecular level. The following chapters provide answers to the key questions posed on the importance of fluorine in drug discovery and clinical applications. For examples, the reader will discover how fluorine has found its place as a key element improving drug efficacy, with reference to some of the best-selling drugs on the market. Finally, a thorough review on the design, synthesis and use of 18F-radiotracers for positron emission tomography is provided, and this is complemented with a discussion on how 19F NMR has advanced molecular and clinical imaging.
Catherine Louis, Olivier Pluchery, Catherine Louis, and Olivier Pluchery
Nanoparticles and Gold--Metallurgy
The fascination with gold is a story which spans millennia, however scientists have recently found a new interest for gold when it is divided into miniscule grains, such as gold nanoparticles. This scientific enthusiasm started in various fields of science in the middle of the 1980s and the present book offers a panorama of the major scientific achievements obtained with gold nanoparticles.Various topics are reviewed such as: gold nanoparticle preparation methods, their plasmon resonance and thermo-optical properties, their catalytic properties, their use in biology and medicine as well as their possible toxicity and, finally, their future technological applications. The book also contains an in-depth study of the use of gold nanoparticles throughout the ages, starting from times where the concept of nanoparticles was beyond the realm of human imagination. All these topics are presented by world-class scientists within a set of self-contained chapters.This book may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students and scientists who need an introduction to gold nanoparticles. It is also suitable for experts in the related areas of chemistry, biology, material science, optics and physics, who are interested in broadening their knowledge and who wish to have an overview of the subject. Each chapter gradually leads the reader from the basics of a topic towards some of the current scientific challenges in the area. The necessary background material to achieve a solid understanding of each topic and the scientific literature to go further in the field is provided.
Chirality, Asymmetric synthesis, and Molecular theory
Chiral materials have been studied in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Virginia for applications in areas like asymmetric catalysis, enantioselective fluorescent sensing, and optical/electrical materials. Optically active 1,1′-binaphthyl molecules are used to build novel chiral polymers, dendrimers, macrocycles, and acyclic molecules. 1,1′-Binaphthyl molecules are chosen because of their remarkably stable chiral configuration as well as their high asymmetric inductions in many processes.In this book, both the fundamental knowledge about the 1,1′-binaphthyl molecules and the synthesis of the structurally diverse 1,1′-binaphthyl-based materials are described. The applications of these materials in various fields are also discussed. This book will serve as a reference for graduate students as well as other professionals working in the related fields.
Endocrine disrupting chemicals--Government policy--United States--History and Endocrine disrupting chemicals--History
In 1941 the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of diethylstilbestrol (DES), the first synthetic chemical to be marketed as an estrogen and one of the first to be identified as a hormone disruptor—a chemical that mimics hormones. Although researchers knew that DES caused cancer and disrupted sexual development, doctors prescribed it for millions of women, initially for menopause and then for miscarriage, while farmers gave cattle the hormone to promote rapid weight gain. Its residues, and those of other chemicals, in the American food supply are changing the internal ecosystems of human, livestock, and wildlife bodies in increasingly troubling ways.In this gripping exploration, Nancy Langston shows how these chemicals have penetrated into every aspect of our bodies and ecosystems, yet the U.S. government has largely failed to regulate them and has skillfully manipulated scientific uncertainty to delay regulation. Personally affected by endocrine disruptors, Langston argues that the FDA needs to institute proper regulation of these commonly produced synthetic chemicals.
Jie Jack Li, Chris Limberakis, Derek A. Pflum, Jie Jack Li, Chris Limberakis, and Derek A. Pflum
Searching for reaction in organic synthesis has been made much easier in the current age of computer databases. However, the dilemma now is which procedure one selects among the ocean of choices. Especially for novices in the laboratory, it becomes a daunting task to decide what reaction conditions to experiment with first in order to have the best chance of success. This collection intends to serve as an'older and wiser lab-mate'one could have by compiling many of the most commonly used experimental procedures in organic synthesis. With chapters that cover such topics as functional group manipulations, oxidation, reduction, and carbon-carbon bond formation, Modern Organic Synthesis in the Laboratory will be useful for both graduate students and professors in organic chemistry and medicinal chemists in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries.
This book provides a critical review of the equilibrium elastic properties of rubber, together with the kinetic-theory background. It is suitable for the non-specialist and the emphasis is on the physical reality embodied in the mathematical formulations. Polymer science had developed greatly since the second edition of this text in 1958, and the two main advances - the refinements of the network theory and associated thermodynamic analysis, and the development of the phenomenological or non-molecular approach to the subject - are both reflected in the structure of this third edition.
This book has been designed to appeal to both chemists working in, and new to, the area of polymer synthesis. It contains detailed instructions for the preparation of a wide-range of polymers by a wide variety of different techniques, and describes how this synthetic methodology can be applied to the development of new materials. It includes details of well-established techniques,e.g. chain-growth or step-growth processes together with more up-to-date examples using methods such as atom-transfer radical polymerisation. Less-well known procedures are also included, e.g. electrochemical synthesis of conducting polymers and the preparation of liquid crystalline elastomers with highly ordered structures. Other topics covered include general polymerisation methodology, controlled/'living'polymerisation methods, the formation of cyclic oligomers during step-growth polymerisation, the synthesis of conducting polymers based on heterocyclic compounds, dendrimers, the preparation of imprinted polymers and liquid crystalline polymers. The main bulk of the text is preceded by an introductory chapter detailing some of the techniques available to the scientist for the characterisation of polymers, both in terms of their chemical composition and in terms of their properties as materials. The book is intended not only for the specialist in polymer chemistry, but also for the organic chemist with little experience who requires a practical introduction to the field.
Polymers, Crystallization, Crystalline polymers, and Chemical equilibrium
First published in 2002, from an original 1964 edition, in the Crystallization of Polymers, 2nd edition Leo Mandelkern provides a self-contained treatment of polymer crystallization. All classes of macromolecules are included and the approach is through the basic disciplines of chemistry and physics. The book discusses the thermodynamics and physical properties that accompany the morphological and structural changes that occur when a collection of molecules of very high molecular weight are transformed from one state to another. Volume 1 is a presentation of the equilibrium concepts that serve as a basis for the subsequent volumes. In this volume the author shows that knowledge of the equilibrium requirements is vital to understanding all aspects of the polymer crystallization process, and the final state that eventually evolves. This book will be an invaluable reference work for all chemists, physicists and materials scientists who work in the area of polymer crystallization.
Assuming no previous knowledge of polymers, this book provides a general introduction to the physics of solid polymers. Covering a wide range of topics within the field of polymer physics, the book begins with a brief history of the development of synthetic polymers and an overview of the methods of polymerisation and processing. In the following chapter, David Bower describes important experimental techniques used in the study of polymers. The main part of the book, however, is devoted to the structure and properties of solid polymers, including blends, copolymers and liquid crystal polymers. With an approach appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of physics, materials science or chemistry, the book includes many worked examples, and problems with solutions. It will provide a firm foundation for the study of the physics of solid polymers.