PHYLOGENY, MORPHOGENESIS, EVOLUTIONARY developmental biology, ORGANISMS, MICROBIAL ecology, and TAXONOMY
Robust phylogenetic hypotheses have become key for studies addressing the evolutionary biology and ecology of various groups of organisms. In the species-rich heteropteran superfamily Pentatomoidea, phylogenies at lower taxonomic levels are still scarce and mostly employ exclusively morphological data. In this study, we conducted a total evidence phylogeny focusing on the tribe Carpocorini (Pentatomidae), using morphological data and four DNA markers ( COI, Cytb, 16S and 28S rDNA; ∼2330 bp; 32 taxa) in order to investigate the relationships within Euschistus Dallas, one of the most speciose pentatomid genera, and between Euschistus and related genera. Our hypotheses generated by maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference show that the current taxonomic composition and classification of Euschistus and allied genera are in need of revision. Euschistus was recovered as nonmonophyletic, with the subgenera forming four independent lineages: Euschistus ( Euschistus) and Euschistus ( Lycipta) Stål are sister groups; Euschistus ( Euschistomorphus) Jensen-Haarup is more closely related to Dichelops Spinola and Agroecus Dallas; and Mitripus Rolston is divided into two clades closely related to Sibaria Stål and Ladeaschistus Rolston. We chose not to change the classification of E. ( Euschistomorphus) until further data become available, and propose to split Euschistus into three genera with the exclusion of Euschistus ( Mitripus) and all of its species. Here we elevate Mitripus to genus rank to include M. acutus comb.n., M. convergens comb.n. and M. legionarius comb.n., and propose Adustonotus Bianchi gen.n. to include A. anticus comb.n., A. latus comb.n., A. tauricornis comb.n., A. grandis comb.n., A. hansi comb.n., A. paranticus comb.n., A. irroratus comb.n. and A. saramagoi comb.n. We also provide identification keys to the genera Adustonotus gen.n., Ladeaschistus, Mitripus n. rank and Sibaria, here defined as the Mitripus genus group, and to the species of Mitripus and Adustonotus gen.n. Our results provide insights into the current status of the classification of the Pentatomidae, suggesting the need for phylogenetic analyses at different taxonomic levels within stink bugs. This published work has been registered in ZooBank, . [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Ghosh, Saikat Kumar B., Hunter, Wayne B., Park, Alexis L., and Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E.
PLoS ONE. 2/9/2017, Vol. 12 Issue 2, p1-19. 19p.
DOUBLE-stranded RNA, SAP (Plant), INSECT-plant relationships, INSECT pests, and GENE silencing
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated gene silencing, also known as RNA interference (RNAi), has been a breakthrough technology for functional genomic studies and represents a potential tool for the management of insect pests. Since the inception of RNAi numerous studies documented successful introduction of exogenously synthesized dsRNA or siRNA into an organism triggering highly efficient gene silencing through the degradation of endogenous RNA homologous to the presented siRNA. Managing hemipteran insect pests, especially Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), is critical to food productivity. BMSB was recently introduced into North America where it is both an invasive agricultural pest of high value specialty, row, and staple crops, as well as an indoor nuisance pest. RNAi technology may serve as a viable tool to manage this voracious pest, but delivery of dsRNA to piercing-sucking insects has posed a tremendous challenge. Effective and practical use of RNAi as molecular biopesticides for biocontrol of insects like BMSB in the environment requires that dsRNAs be delivered in vivo through ingestion. Therefore, the key challenge for molecular biologists in developing insect-specific molecular biopesticides is to find effective and reliable methods for practical delivery of stable dsRNAs such as through oral ingestion. Here demonstrated is a reliable delivery system of effective insect-specific dsRNAs through oral feeding through a new delivery system to induce a significant decrease in expression of targeted genes such as JHAMT and Vg. This state-of-the-art delivery method overcomes environmental delivery challenges so that RNAi is induced through insect-specific dsRNAs orally delivered to hemipteran and other insect pests. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]