ATHLETES, FATIGUE, PHYSICAL education, QUESTIONNAIRES, and SPORTS medicine
Abstract: Objective. – The group of consensus of the French Society of Sport Medicine prepared a questionnaire in order to detect early stage of overtraining. This questionnaire includes 54 items which the subjects have to answer by “yes” or by “not”. A score is then established by summing the “yes”. Taking into account the formulation of the questions, this score will increase with the training load. The aim of our study is to propose a score of overtraining, and also to highlight the importance of some items or groups of items. Methods. – Our population consisted of French sportsmen of both sexes, from different geographical origins, age, sporting practice and level. A multicentric analysis was carried out on the basis of 1984 collected questionnaires. We analysed the evolution of the percentage of subjects, the weight of various parameters (age, overtraining) and the evolution of the frequency of each item as a function of the score. Results. – A score of 20 was proposed as an overtraining state threshold, which has to be confirmed on the basis of correlations with biological indices, in particular with a state of clinically established overtraining. Sixteen items present a linear evolution traducing an increase of tiredness according to the overload. Six items have a logarithmic increase, traducing a kind of “background noise”. The others items (N =32) presenting a non-linear increase are sign of a decompensation phenomenon. Conclusion. – This analysis by item make possible an improve of the questionnaire, by selecting items groups which may give an orientation on the type of tiredness. It also confirms the usefulness of this questionnaire as a tool for the follow-up of the training state of sportsmen, a score equal to or higher than 20 constituting the overtraining threshold. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
BIPOLAR disorder, MENTAL depression, DEPRESSED persons, ANTIPSYCHOTIC agents, and MENTAL health
Abstract: Introduction: Although depressive moods are recognised as a very broad condition, there is still only one definition in international classifications for describing a major depressive episode (MDE). However, there is currently some controversy surround the treatment of depressive states. This includes SSRIs and suicide in adolescents, and more specifically in bipolar disorders where some depressions are made worse by antidepressants. New data has suggested that depressive states in BP patients can be improved by atypical antipsychotics. Aim: We aimed to assess 1) whether it is possible to distinguish different forms of bipolar depression using a dimensional approach, and 2) if, yes, whether there are different patterns of treatment response. Method: We characterised 60 bipolar patients with a Major Depressive Episode (DSM-IV) using a new tool (MATHYS: Multidimensional Assessment of Thymic States) assessing five fundamental dimensions (emotional reactivity, cognitive speed, psycho-motricity, motivation and senses perception) of mood states (full description elsewhere). Results: A cluster analysis using the items of the dimensional scale revealed two types of depressive states. One group (G1; N =38), which had a low score, is characterised by an inhibition in all dimensions, whereas the other group (G2; N =22) is characterised by an over-activation. Emotional reactivity is a useful dimension for discriminating these two types of depression (G1: hyporeactivity; G2: hyperreactivity) whereas sadness is not. A lower score on the MAThyS scale at day 1 was associated with a good response to antidepressant treatment, whereas higher scores were linked to a good response to a mood stabilizers alone or in combination with an antipsychotic. Conclusion: Bipolar depressive states are not homogeneous and this heterogeneity can explain various patterns of treatment response. A dimensional approach could be useful for discriminating the different forms of bipolar depression and to help manage treatment. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
ETHICS, PSYCHIATRISTS, MENTAL health personnel, PSYCHIATRY, and PSYCHOTHERAPISTS
Abstract: In legal proceedings the expert witness testimony may be considered a medical act only if the expert conducts his clinical observations within the limits established by the medical code of ethics. This will then allow the psychiatrist to help the judge reach a more informed legal decision. The difficulty inherent in this process is for the expert to give an exact answer (“yes” or “no”) to the questions formulated in order for the judge to arrive at an accurate decision. To better understand the evidence presented, the judge may ask empirical questions that require the expert witness to give testimony going beyond the information directly gathered through clinical observations. It is the expert witness'' responsibility to determine what amount of interpretation of material drawn from a clinical observation is appropriate to help the judge make a legal decision. This requires defining legal standards such as credibility, truth, and suggestibility. One must also recognize that the clinical observation of a victim is often the person''s first contact with a psychiatrist. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Chidambaram, N., Mazzalai, A., Sandu, C., Balma, D., Muralt, P., Faralli, D., Colombo, L., and Fusi, M.
2013 Joint IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectric and Workshop on Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (ISAF/PFM) Applications of Ferroelectric and Workshop on the Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (ISAF/PFM), 2013 IEEE International Symposium on the. :76-79 Jul, 2013
ANESTHESIA, PLACEBOS (Medicine), ETOMIDATE, and HEART beat
Abstract: Objective: Various drugs including hydroxyzine are preoperatively administered to facilitate the induction of general anaesthesia. We investigated the effect of hydroxyzine premedication on BIS-based etomidate induction of general anaesthesia. Patients and methods: Sixty-seven ASA I–II consecutive patients were randomly allocated to receive oral hydroxyzine 1.5 mg/kg or placebo, 90 min prior to inducing general anaesthesia using intravenous etomidate alone 0.3 mg/kg. BIS values were continuously recorded. The times for the BIS to decrease to 50 and to loss of eyelid reflex; the evolution of arterial pressure and heart rate; and myoclonia rate and grade were investigated and compared. Results: The results for the hydroxyzine and placebo groups were similar with respect to: a) time [median (range) (seconds)] to a BIS decrease to 50 [100 (21–266) versus 113 (30–510), P =0.1] and to loss of eyelid reflex [83 (21–210) versus 97 (30–300), P =0.1]; b) myoclonia frequency (yes/no) (9/26 versus 4/28, P =0.2) and grade (P =0.3); the evolution of mean arterial pressure and heart rate (P =0.3). Conclusion: Oral weight-related hydroxyzine premedication does not alter BIS-based etomidate induction of GA. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
ANTIBIOTICS, MOLECULES, PHARMACEUTICAL industry, SCIENCE, and CLINICAL trials
Abstract: The golden age of antibacterial antibiotics extend from year 1941 to the 1990s decade. At that time, something like an earth quake occurred: from the thirty molecules or so whose development was being achieved or was already marketed, only three were put on the French market, and faced the greatest difficulties to be prescribed by practicians, because: [-] the knights of good practice want a strict limitation of their use to precise indications; [-] the pharmaceutical companies find that the return on investment is almost impossible; [-] the prescribers are stunned by the inconsistency between the MAs, the advances in science and the health economic authorities advices which claim that these products are not very interesting; [-] the research for new antibiotics is stalling; [-] thus, for the first time in 60 years, an iconoclastic question arises: do we need new antibiotics? However, while the debate is raging, many of us think “yes we do”, as it is a duty to anticipate today the consequences of tomorrow''s bacterial resistances. This paper presents three types of propositions to optimise the development of future molecules: [-] sharpening of the data concerning preclinical security for a better predicting both the activity and the toxicity; [-] improvement in performances and organization of clinical trials, which implicates to reconsider some of the present methodological rules; [-] inclusion in the evaluation data of some relevant and new features measuring the anti-bacterial activity while taking into account the present and future bacterial resistances. The development of new concepts to develop new drugs which would be active against tomorrow''s bacteria compels us to manage in a new fashion today''s systems, which have reached their own limits. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
TELEVISION advertising, INTERNET industry, and INSTRUCTIONAL materials industry
Reports on the decision of Conseil Superieur de l' Audiovisuel (CSA), a broadcasting regulator in France, to allow television advertising for electronic commerce companies. Opposition of Culture Minister Catherine Trautmann to the decision; Benefit of the decision for Internet start-ups; Estimated spending of Internet advertisers in France in 1999.
Díaz-Díaz, Miriam, Sánchez Hurtado de Mendoza, Danieyis, Cupull Santana, René, Bernal Cabrera, Alexander, Medina Marrero, Ricardo, Carballo Bargos, Miriam, García Bernal, Milagros, and Acosta-Suárez, Mayra
Revista Centro Agricola. abr-jun2018, Vol. 45 Issue 2, p5-11. 7p.
ACTINOMYCETALES, COMMON bean, RHIZOCTONIA solani, CORTICIUM sasakii, and GREENHOUSES
The effect of seed treatment with the actinomycetes strains EA2 and CB14, and their combination, on damping-off incidence caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn in Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Velasco largo was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. These strains were compared with Trichoderma harzianum A-34, Celest®Top 312 FS and two controls (positive and negative). Inceptisol sterile and non-sterile soil was used under a completely randomized design. The coating seeds with strains were made using 8 % cassava starch. The incidence of R. solani was determined 21 days after sowing. In non-sterile soil, the lowest incidences caused by R. solani were found with Celest®Top 312 FS, which did not significantly differ from the combination of actinomycete strains CB14 + EA2, but yes with the rest of the treatments. In the sterile soil, the lowest percentages of incidences were obtained with the combination of actinomycete strains (CB14 + EA2). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]