Alencar, Mery I. G. de, Belo, André Y. S. P., Silva, José L. A., Asato, Ana E. B., Gomes, Eduarda F., de Oliveira, Valéria S., Teixeira, Jesiel de O., Monte, Otávio de S., Mota, Adriano S., Pereira, Vitória M. L., Dantas, Sibele S., Silva, Gabriel H. S., Goto, Bruno T., Souza, Alexandre F., and Caliman, Adriano
Pollination, Agricultural productivity, Crop yields, Sustainable agriculture, Pollinators, Apple orchards, Factorial experiment designs, and Orchards
The alarming loss of pollinator diversity world‐wide can reduce the productivity of pollinator‐dependent crops, which could have economic impacts. However, it is unclear to what extent the loss of a key native pollinator species affects crop production and farmer's profits.By experimentally manipulating the presence of colonies of a native bumblebee species Bombus pauloensis in eight apple orchards in South Argentina, we evaluated the impact of losing natural populations of a key native pollinator group on (a) crop yield, (b) pollination quality, and (c) farmer's profit. To do so, we performed a factorial experiment of pollinator exclusion (yes/no) and hand pollination (yes/no).Our results showed that biotic pollination increased ripe fruit set by 13% when compared to non‐biotic pollination. Additionally, fruit set and the number of fruits per apple tree was reduced by less than a half in those orchards where bumblebees were absent, even when honeybees were present at high densities. Consequently, farmer's profit was 2.4‐fold lower in farms lacking bumblebees than in farms hosting both pollinator species. The pollination experiment further suggested that the benefits of bumblebees could be mediated by improved pollen quality rather than quantity.Synthesis and applications. This study highlights the pervasive consequences of losing key pollinator functional groups, such as bumblebees, for apple production and local economies. Adopting pollinator‐friendly practices such as minimizing the use of synthetic inputs or restoring/maintaining semi‐natural habitats at farm and landscape scales, will have the double advantage of promoting biodiversity conservation, and increasing crop productivity and profitability for local farmers. Yet because the implementation of these practices can take time to deliver results, the management of native pollinator species can be a provisional complementary strategy to increase economic profitability of apple growers in the short term. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Arcanjo, Gemima S., dos Santos, Carolina R., Cavalcante, Bárbara F., Moura, Gabriela de A., Ricci, Bárbara C., Mounteer, Ann H., Santos, Lucilaine V.S., Queiroz, Luciano M., and Amaral, Míriam CS.
Chemosphere. Aug2022, Vol. 301, pN.PAG-N.PAG. 1p.
The contamination of water sources by pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and their effect on aquatic communities and human health have become an environmental concern worldwide. Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are an alternative to improve biological removal of recalcitrant organic compounds from municipal sewage. Their efficiency can be increased by using high retention membranes such as forward osmosis (FO) and membrane distillation (MD). Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the performance of an anaerobic osmotic MBR coupled with MD (OMBR-MD) in the treatment of municipal sewage containing PhACs and estrogenic activity. A submerged hybrid FO-MD module was integrated into the bioreactor. PhACs removal was higher than 96% due to biological degradation, biosorption and membrane retention. Biological removal of the PhACs was affected by the salinity build-up in the bioreactor, with reduction in biodegradation after 32 d. However, salinity increment had little or no effect on biosorption removal. The anaerobic OMBR-MD removed >99.9% of estrogenic activity, resulting in a distillate with 0.14 ng L−1 E2-eq, after 22 d, and 0.04 ng L−1 E2-eq, after 32 d. OMBR-MD treatment promoted reduction in environmental and human health risks from high to low, except for ketoprofen, which led to medium acute environmental and human health risks. Carcinogenic risks were reduced from unacceptable to negligible, regarding estrogenic activity. Thus, the hybrid anaerobic OMBR-MD demonstrated strong performance in reducing risks, even when human health is considered. [Display omitted] • Biological removal of estrogenic compounds was governed mainly by biodegradation. • Biological removal of micropollutants (MP) was affected by the salinity build-up. • MgCl 2 as draw solute reduced the negative impacts on biological removal of MP. • Ketoprofen in distillate led to medium acute environmental and human health risks. • Carcinogenic risk, regarding estrogenicity, reduced from unacceptable to negligible. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Wastewater treatment, Sewage purification, Sewage disposal plants, Yeast-free diet, Leavening agents, and Fire assay
Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are responsible for the input of estrogenic contaminants into aquatic ecosystems, leading to widespread effects in wildlife. In the present work, levels of estrone (E1), 17α- and 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), and nonylphenol (NP) were quantified in effluents from WWTPs located in Ria de Aveiro (NW Portugal), as well as in the final effluent discharged into the Atlantic Ocean through the S. Jacinto submarine outfall. Reference sites, located at the entrance of the estuarine system and at the seaside, were also included. Samples were collected under summer (June 2005) and winter (February 2006) conditions. For the summer survey samples, estrogenicity and androgenicity were evaluated using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the yeast androgen screen (YAS) assay. Estrone levels varied from 0.5 to 85 ng/L in the summer survey and between L in winter; estradiol levels ranged from L in summer and were always L up to 2,350 ng/L in summer and from 10 to 2,410 ng/L in winter; BPA levels varied from 2.8 to 897 ng/L in summer and from 2.6 up to 316 ng/L in winter. Biological assays disclosed estrogenic levels at reference sites lower than the ones reported to pose risk for wildlife. However, the S. Jacinto outfall effluent released high concentrations of NP and BPA into the marine environment. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Van Zijl, Magdalena Catherina, Aneck-Hahn, Natalie Hildegard, Swart, Pieter, Hayward, Stefan, Genthe, Bettina, and De Jager, Christiaan
Chemosphere. Nov2017, Vol. 186, p305-313. 9p.
Health risk assessment, Endocrine disruptors, Water purification, Water supply, and Drinking water quality
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are ubiquitous in the environment and have been detected in drinking water from various countries. Although various water treatment processes can remove EDCs, chemicals can also migrate from pipes that transport water and contaminate drinking water. This study investigated the estrogenic activity in drinking water from various distribution points in Pretoria (City of Tshwane) (n = 40) and Cape Town (n = 40), South Africa, using the recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the T47D-KBluc reporter gene assay. The samples were collected seasonally over four sampling periods. The samples were also analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononylphthalate (DINP), 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), estrone (E 1 ) and ethynylestradiol (EE 2 ) using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrophotometry (UPLC-MS/MS). This was followed by a scenario based health risk assessment to assess the carcinogenic and toxic human health risks associated with the consumption of distribution point water. None of the water extracts from the distribution points were above the detection limit in the YES bioassay, but the EEq values ranged from 0.002 to 0.114 ng/L using the T47D-KBluc bioassay. BPA, DEHA, DBP, DEHP, DINP E 1 , E 2, and EE 2 were detected in distribution point water samples. NP was below the detection limit for all the samples. The estrogenic activity and levels of target chemicals were comparable to the levels found in other countries. Overall the health risk assessment revealed acceptable health and carcinogenic risks associated with the consumption of distribution point water. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Litter (Trash), Waste management, Environmental responsibility, Environmentalism, Environmental sociology, Behavior, Social norms, Surveys, and Psychology
Two studies tested littering norm activation by trash can design. The first was a scenario study using a 4 (norm type: social injunctive vs. social descriptive vs. personal vs. control) × 2 (activation type: explicit vs. implicit activation) between-group design, with judgments of a litterer as the dependent variable. Explicit norm activation was more effective than implicit activation. A field study subsequently tested the effect of personal norm activation on actual littering behavior, following a 2 (explicit activation: no vs. yes) × 2 (Implicit activation: no vs. yes) between-group design. Here, both explicit activation through a verbal prompt and implicit activation through design had significant effects, reducing the amount of litter by 50%. A post hoc survey revealed significant effects of age and gender on the personal norm against littering. These findings helped explain the absence of norm activation effects in the youngest age group as found in the field study. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Environmental monitoring, Water pollution measurement, Water quality monitoring, Biological assay, Xenoestrogens, Analytical chemistry techniques, In vitro toxicity testing, and Evaluation
Bioassays are well established in the pharmaceutical industry and single compound analysis, but there is still uncertainty about their usefulness in environmental monitoring. We compared the responses of five bioassays designed to measure estrogenic activity (the yeast estrogen screen, ER-CALUX, MELN, T47D-KBluc, and E-SCREEN assays) and chemical analysis on extracts from four different water sources (groundwater, raw sewage, treated sewage, and river water). All five bioassays displayed similar trends and there was good agreement with analytical chemistry results. The data from the ER-CALUX and E-SCREEN bioassays were robust and predictable, and well-correlated with predictions from chemical analysis. The T47D-KBluc appeared likewise promising, but with a more limited sample size it was less compelling. The YES assay was less sensitive than the other assays by an order of magnitude, which resulted in a larger number of nondetects. The MELN assay was less predictable, although the possibility that this was due to laboratory-specific difficulties cannot be discounted. With standardized bioassay data analysis and consistency of operating protocols, bioanalytical tools are a promising advance in the development of a tiered approach to environmental water quality monitoring. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Sewage disposal plants, Sewage purification, Refuse disposal facilities, Environmental impact charges, Water quality management, Water utilities, Hospitals, Steroids, and Hormones
Influent and effluent samples originating from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (treating hospital wastewater and domestic wastewater, Belgium) have been analyzed in order to estimate their steroid hormone content. The natural estrogens estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and the synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) together with other steroid hormones progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) metabolites were detected in these samples. The hormone concentrations in both the hospital and the domestic WWTP samples were not significantly different and ranged from <0.2 ng EE2/L to 114 ng EE2/L, from <0.2 ng E1/L to 58 ng E1/L and from <0.2 ng P/L to >100 ng P/L. E2 was detected once at a concentration of 17 ng/L. In the domestic WWTP which comprises a conventional activated sludge treatment in parallel with a membrane bioreactor, no differences in estrogen removal efficiency could be observed for both treatments. In comparison to chemical analysis data, the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) appears to underestimate the influent estrogen concentrations, probably due to influent toxicity for the YES. Effluent estrogen concentrations, on the other hand, were overestimated by the YES test, probably due to the presence of other estrogenic compounds in the effluent. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Comtois-Marotte, Simon, Chappuis, Thomas, Vo Duy, Sung, Gilbert, Nicolas, Lajeunesse, André, Taktek, Salma, Desrosiers, Mélanie, Veilleux, Éloïse, and Sauvé, Sébastien
Chemosphere. Jan2017, Vol. 166, p400-411. 12p.
Organic water pollutants, Particulate matter, Endocrine disruptors, Sewage disposal plants, and Estrogen
Trace emerging contaminants (ECs) occur in both waste and surface waters that are rich in particulates that have been found to sorb several organic contaminants. An analytical method based on off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis was developed for the detection and quantification of 31 ECs from surface water, wastewater, suspended particulate matter (SPM) as well as sediments. Lyophilized sediments and air-dried SPM were subjected to ultrasonic extraction. Water samples and extracts were then concentrated and cleaned-up by off-line SPE. Quantification was realized using a Q Exactive mass spectrometer in both full scan (FS) and MS 2 modes. These two modes were optimized and compared to determine which one was the most suitable for each matrix studied. Yeast estrogen screen assay (YES-assay) adapted from the direct measurement of estrogenic activity without sample extraction was tested on filtered wastewater samples. An endocrine disrupting effect was detected in all effluent samples analyzed with estradiol equivalent concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 720 ng eq E2 L −1 for the WWTP-1 and 6.5–42 ng eq E2 L −1 for the WWTP-2. The analytical methods were also applied on six samples of surface water, the corresponding SPM, the sediments and thirty-nine effluent samples from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) sampled over a period of five months (February to June 2014). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Kim, Samuel M, Zhao, Di, Podolanczuk, Anna J, Lutsey, Pamela L, Guallar, Eliseo, Kawut, Steven M, Barr, R Graham, Boer, Ian H de, Kestenbaum, Bryan R, Lederer, David J, Michos, Erin D, and de Boer, Ian H
Journal of Nutrition. Jul2018, Vol. 148 Issue 7, p1126-1134. 9p.
The presence of estrogenic endocrine disruptors in aquatic environments has been a concern and bioassays are recommended tools for their monitoring. However, the physicochemical properties of contaminants and the environmental matrix features may influence the resultant response. This study aimed to assess this influence on the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay. Mixtures of 17β-estradiol (E2) and humic acid (HA) were evaluated through the Schild approach aiming to investigate the interactions between estrogens and dissolved organic matter (DOM). Moreover, environmental samples from municipal landfill leachate and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents and effluents were screened for (anti)estrogenic activity at both dissolved and particulate phases. Finally, results were statistically confronted with physicochemical parameters through principal component analysis (PCA). The HA test concentrations strongly reduced the E2 response, even at low levels. Humic substances may not only reduce estrogen bioavailability, but also interfere with the assay mechanism through enzymatic inhibition thus masking the sample estrogenic potential. Landfill leachate had total E2-Eq in the range 1282–2591 ng L−1, while WWTP influent and effluent were in the range 12.1–41.4 and L−1, so estrogenicity was reduced 92% in average. Particulate phase was responsible for 33–100% of measured E2-Eq between matrices, though cytotoxicity occurred in some extracts. Antiestrogenic activity was observed in both phases and might also have masked the estrogenicity of samples. PCA did not resulted in positive correlations supporting a multiphase distribution pattern of estrogenic compounds. Nevertheless, the solids and organic matter characteristics supported the data interpretation. In conclusion, the in vitro YES assay is subjected to factors intrinsic to the environmental sample that can influence on the measured estrogenic response. Therefore, results interpretation should be performed together with organic matter characterization parameters, cytotoxicity and antiestrogenic activity evaluation. [Display omitted] • Humic acid induces strong antagonistic effect in the Yeast Estrogen Screen. • Landfill leachate, WWTP influents and effluents were highly estrogenic. • Cytotoxicity was recurrently associated with particles >0.7 μm. • DOM, antiestrogenic activity and phase distribution influenced on estrogenic response. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Silva, Lídia Gaudêncio Ribeiro, Costa, Elizângela Pinheiro, Starling, Maria Clara Vieira Martins, dos Santos Azevedo, Taíza, Bottrel, Sue Ellen Costa, Pereira, Renata Oliveira, Sanson, Ananda Lima, Afonso, Robson José Cassia Franco, and Amorim, Camila C.
Aquatic environments are often contaminated with complex mixtures of chemicals that may pose a risk to ecosystems and human health. This contamination cannot be addressed with target analysis alone but tools are required to reduce this complexity and identify those chemicals that might cause adverse effects. Effect-directed analysis (EDA) is designed to meet this challenge and faces increasing interest in water and sediment quality monitoring. Thus, the present paper summarizes current experience with the EDA approach and the tools required, and provides practical advice on their application. The paper highlights the need for proper problem formulation and gives general advice for study design. As the EDA approach is directed by toxicity, basic principles for the selection of bioassays are given as well as a comprehensive compilation of appropriate assays, including their strengths and weaknesses. A specific focus is given to strategies for sampling, extraction and bioassay dosing since they strongly impact prioritization of toxicants in EDA. Reduction of sample complexity mainly relies on fractionation procedures, which are discussed in this paper, including quality assurance and quality control. Automated combinations of fractionation, biotesting and chemical analysis using so-called hyphenated tools can enhance the throughput and might reduce the risk of artifacts in laboratory work. The key to determining the chemical structures causing effects is analytical toxicant identification. The latest approaches, tools, software and databases for target-, suspect and non-target screening as well as unknown identification are discussed together with analytical and toxicological confirmation approaches. A better understanding of optimal use and combination of EDA tools will help to design efficient and successful toxicant identification studies in the context of quality monitoring in multiply stressed environments. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Barry, Evan R., Morikawa, Teppei, Butler, Brian L., Shrestha, Kriti, de la Rosa, Rosemarie, Yan, Kelley S., Fuchs, Charles S., Magness, Scott T., Smits, Ron, Ogino, Shuji, Kuo, Calvin J., and Camargo, Fernando D.
Torres-Sánchez, Luisa, Vázquez-Salas, Ruth A., Vite, Adylenne, Galván-Portillo, Marcia, Cebrián, Mariano E., Macias-Jiménez, Ana Perla, Ríos, Camilo, and Montes, Sergio
Science of the Total Environment. Oct2018, Vol. 637, p686-694. 9p.
Cadmium & the environment, Physiological effects of cadmium, Industrial toxicology, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, and Blood testing
Background Mexico City has air, water and food pollution problems; however, human exposure to cadmium and its sources have not been described. Objectives To determine the blood cadmium (BCd) level and its main exposure sources among males aged 40 years or older living in different areas of Mexico City. Methods After receiving informed consent, we interviewed 702 males aged ≥40 years to collect data on their sociodemographic characteristics, lifetime occupation, smoking history, and dietary habits, using a validated questionnaire. The BCd level (μg/L) was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results The BCd mean level ± SD was 2.61 ± 0.82 μg/L, and 20% of men reported a potential cadmium occupational exposure. After adjusting for age and other potential confounders, the main determinants of the BCd level were the current smoking status at interview, with low (β ≤8.5packs/year vs. non-smoker = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.28–0.64 μg/L; p < 0.01) and high (β > 8.5 packs/year vs. non-smoker = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.56–0.87 μg/L; p < 0.01) smoking intensity, and living in the Center (β Center vs. South = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.02–0.37 μg/L; p = 0.02) or West area of the city (β West vs. South = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.21–0.58 μg/L; p < 0.001). Moreover, the potential dietary sources of BCd included: liver (β Yes vs. No = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03–0.23 μg/L; p = 0.01), “ Chorizo” (β >1–3servings/month vs. No = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.01–0.26 μg/L; p < 0.001), sausage and ham. Conclusions The BCd levels observed in this population are high and only similar to those observed in workers from a sanitary landfill area in Southern Thailand. Potential environmental Cd exposure sources, such as industrial activity and previous land use, in the West and Center areas of the city should be explored in detail, especially in vulnerable population groups, such as children. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Moreira, Nuno F.F., Sousa, José M., Macedo, Gonçalo, Ribeiro, Ana R., Barreiros, Luisa, Pedrosa, Marta, Faria, Joaquim L., Pereira, M. Fernando R., Castro-Silva, Sérgio, Segundo, Marcela A., Manaia, Célia M., Nunes, Olga C., and Silva, Adrián M.T.
Science of the Total Environment. Dec2020, Vol. 746, pN.PAG-N.PAG. 1p.
Extensive use of endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) and their release through various pathways into the environment are emerging environmental concerns. In this context, H 2 O 2 and chlorine UV-based treatments were carried out to evaluate their efficiency in the removal of the bisphenol A (BPA), 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) at 100 μg L−1 from ultrapure water and from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Photolysis was performed under different irradiation sources, i.e. UVC and UVA. The effect of H 2 O 2 (3 and 30 mg·L−1), free chlorine concentrations (1 and 2 mg·L−1) and pH (5, 7 and 9) were also investigated. Toxicity (Raphidocelis subcapitata) and estrogenic activity (yeast estrogen screen - YES assay) were assessed during the processes. Compound removal at optimal operating parameters reached 100% after 15 and 2 min for UVC/H 2 O 2 (pH 9 and 3 mg L−1 of H 2 O 2), and UVC/Cl (pH 9 and 2 mg L−1 of chlorine), respectively. Total organic carbon (TOC) removal achieved 37% and 45% for the H 2 O 2 and Cl-UV based process, respectively. The in vitro YES assay indicated that the formed by-products were non-estrogenic compounds, while the toxicity evaluation revealed high cell growth inhibition due to UVC/Cl byproducts. During the UV-based processes, 30 transformation products (TPs) were identified, in which three new chlorinated TPs from E2 and EE2 may be responsible for toxicity effects. EDC degradation by UV/Cl is faster than by UV/H 2 O 2 , although chlorinated toxic byproducts were also formed during the UV/Cl process. Unlabelled Image • The Cl/UV process is more efficient than H 2 O 2 /UV in removing E2, EE2 and BPA. • Both processes are capable of removing WWTP EDCs. • EDC degradation products do not display estrogenic activity. • The Cl/UV process produces high toxicity TPs. • Three new TPs were identified during the Cl/UV process. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Leachate is difficult to biodegrade, and presents variable physical, chemical and biological characteristics, as well as high toxicological potential for soil, groundwater and water bodies. In this context, untreated leachate toxicity was evaluated through acute and chronic exposures in Eisenia andrei earthworms. Physico-chemical leachate characterizations indicate a complex composition, with high organic matter (COD – 10,634 mg L−1) and ammoniacal nitrogen (2388 mg L−1) concentrations. Metals with carcinogenic potential, such as Cr, As and Pb, were present at 0.60, 0.14 and 0.01 μg L−1, respectively and endocrine disrupting compounds were detected in estradiol equivalents of 660 ± 50 ng L−1. Acute tests with Eisenia andrei indicated an LC 50 (72 h) of 1.3 ± 0.1 μL cm−2 in a filter paper contact test and 53.9 ± 1.3 mL kg−1 in natural soil (14 days). The EC 50 in a behavioral test was estimated as 31.6 ± 6.8 mL kg−1, indicating an escape effect for concentrations ranging from 35.0 to 70.0 mL kg−1 and habitat loss from 87.5 mL kg−1 of leachate exposure. Chronic exposure (56 days) led to reproduction effects, resulting in a 4-fold decreased cocoon production and 7-fold juvenile decrease. This effect was mainly attributed to the possible presence of endocrine disrupting compounds. An estimated NOAEL of 1.7 mL L−1 and LOAEL of 3.5 mL L−1 were estimated for earthworms exposed to the assessed effluent. Extremely high-risk quotients (RQ ≥ 1) were estimated based on leachate application in irrigation. Thus, adequate municipal solid waste management is paramount, especially with regard to generated by-products, which can result in high toxicological risks for terrestrial organisms. [Display omitted] • Thirty metals and high COD and ammoniacal nitrogen were determined in leachate. • Leachate exhibited high estrogenic activity by the YES assay. • Leachate exposure resulted in Eisenia andrei earthworm escape and loss of habitat. • Reproduction effects were noted in leachate-exposed earthworms. • Leachate was considered as high environmental risk (RQ ≥ 1). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Ozonization, Atrazine, Pesticides, Agricultural wastes, Terbuthylazine, and Estrogen
The triazines are a group of herbicides with a wide range of uses. Atrazine is, in fact, one of the most used agricultural pesticides in the world. The terbuthylazine is applied as a substitute of atrazine in some countries of Europe since 2004, when the European Union announced a ban of atrazine because of ubiquitous water contamination. In this study, both atrazine and terbuthylazine were degraded by the ozone process to estimate the efficiency on pesticide removal in water, the intermediates formed and their potential oestrogenic activity using the yeast oestrogen screen (YES) test. Both pesticides were rapidly eliminated from the medium during ozonation (applied ozone dose 0.083 and 0.02 mmol O3 L−1, respectively). The results show that both compounds generated similar by-products from ozone degradation. Moreover, significant oestrogenic activity was detected for both atrazine and terbuthylazine intermediates, during the first minutes of ozonation. The YES assay used in this study proved to be a sensitive tool in assessing trace amounts of oestrogenic chemicals, which can represent critical issues influencing the experimental results in environmental applications. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Wastewater treatment, Chemical decomposition, Toxicological chemistry, Sulfur in water, Bisphenol A & the environment, Estrogen, and Detoxification (Substance abuse treatment)
The performance of S 2 O 8 2− /UV-C and H 2 O 2 /UV-C treatments was investigated for the degradation and detoxification of Bisphenol A (BPA). The acute toxicity of BPA and its degradation products was examined with the Vibrio fischeri bioassay, whereas changes in estrogenic activity were followed with the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay. LC and LC–MS/MS analyses were conducted to determine degradation products evolving during photochemical treatment. In addition, BPA-spiked real freshwater samples were also subjected to S 2 O 8 2− /UV-C and H 2 O 2 /UV-C treatment to study the effect of a real water matrix on BPA removal and detoxification rates. BPA removal in pure water was very fast (⩽7 min) and complete via both H 2 O 2 /UV-C and S 2 O 8 2− /UV-C treatment, accompanied with rapid and significant mineralization rates ranging between 70% and 85%. V . fischeri bioassay results indicated that degradation products being more toxic than BPA were formed at the initial stages of H 2 O 2 /UV-C whereas a rapid and steady reduction in toxicity was observed during S 2 O 8 2− /UV-C treatment in pure water. UV-C treatment products exhibited a higher estrogenic activity than the original BPA solution while the estrogenicity of BPA was completely removed during H 2 O 2 /UV-C and S 2 O 8 2− /UV-C treatments parallel to its degradation. 3-methylbenzoic and 4-sulfobenzoic acids, as well as the ring opening products fumaric, succinic and oxalic acids could be identified as degradation products. BPA degradation required extended treatment periods (>20 min) and TOC removals were considerably retarded (by 40%) in the raw freshwater matrix most probably due to its natural organic matter content (TOC = 5.1 mg L −1 ). H 2 O 2 /UV-C and S 2 O 8 2− /UV-C treatment in raw freshwater did not result in toxic degradation products. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]