Pollination, Agricultural productivity, Crop yields, Sustainable agriculture, Pollinators, Apple orchards, Factorial experiment designs, and Orchards
The alarming loss of pollinator diversity world‐wide can reduce the productivity of pollinator‐dependent crops, which could have economic impacts. However, it is unclear to what extent the loss of a key native pollinator species affects crop production and farmer's profits.By experimentally manipulating the presence of colonies of a native bumblebee species Bombus pauloensis in eight apple orchards in South Argentina, we evaluated the impact of losing natural populations of a key native pollinator group on (a) crop yield, (b) pollination quality, and (c) farmer's profit. To do so, we performed a factorial experiment of pollinator exclusion (yes/no) and hand pollination (yes/no).Our results showed that biotic pollination increased ripe fruit set by 13% when compared to non‐biotic pollination. Additionally, fruit set and the number of fruits per apple tree was reduced by less than a half in those orchards where bumblebees were absent, even when honeybees were present at high densities. Consequently, farmer's profit was 2.4‐fold lower in farms lacking bumblebees than in farms hosting both pollinator species. The pollination experiment further suggested that the benefits of bumblebees could be mediated by improved pollen quality rather than quantity.Synthesis and applications. This study highlights the pervasive consequences of losing key pollinator functional groups, such as bumblebees, for apple production and local economies. Adopting pollinator‐friendly practices such as minimizing the use of synthetic inputs or restoring/maintaining semi‐natural habitats at farm and landscape scales, will have the double advantage of promoting biodiversity conservation, and increasing crop productivity and profitability for local farmers. Yet because the implementation of these practices can take time to deliver results, the management of native pollinator species can be a provisional complementary strategy to increase economic profitability of apple growers in the short term. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Wastewater treatment, Sewage purification, Sewage disposal plants, Yeast-free diet, Leavening agents, and Fire assay
Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are responsible for the input of estrogenic contaminants into aquatic ecosystems, leading to widespread effects in wildlife. In the present work, levels of estrone (E1), 17α- and 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), and nonylphenol (NP) were quantified in effluents from WWTPs located in Ria de Aveiro (NW Portugal), as well as in the final effluent discharged into the Atlantic Ocean through the S. Jacinto submarine outfall. Reference sites, located at the entrance of the estuarine system and at the seaside, were also included. Samples were collected under summer (June 2005) and winter (February 2006) conditions. For the summer survey samples, estrogenicity and androgenicity were evaluated using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the yeast androgen screen (YAS) assay. Estrone levels varied from 0.5 to 85 ng/L in the summer survey and between L in winter; estradiol levels ranged from L in summer and were always L up to 2,350 ng/L in summer and from 10 to 2,410 ng/L in winter; BPA levels varied from 2.8 to 897 ng/L in summer and from 2.6 up to 316 ng/L in winter. Biological assays disclosed estrogenic levels at reference sites lower than the ones reported to pose risk for wildlife. However, the S. Jacinto outfall effluent released high concentrations of NP and BPA into the marine environment. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Van Zijl, Magdalena Catherina, Aneck-Hahn, Natalie Hildegard, Swart, Pieter, Hayward, Stefan, Genthe, Bettina, and De Jager, Christiaan
Chemosphere. Nov2017, Vol. 186, p305-313. 9p.
Health risk assessment, Endocrine disruptors, Water purification, Water supply, and Drinking water quality
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are ubiquitous in the environment and have been detected in drinking water from various countries. Although various water treatment processes can remove EDCs, chemicals can also migrate from pipes that transport water and contaminate drinking water. This study investigated the estrogenic activity in drinking water from various distribution points in Pretoria (City of Tshwane) (n = 40) and Cape Town (n = 40), South Africa, using the recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the T47D-KBluc reporter gene assay. The samples were collected seasonally over four sampling periods. The samples were also analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononylphthalate (DINP), 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), estrone (E 1 ) and ethynylestradiol (EE 2 ) using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrophotometry (UPLC-MS/MS). This was followed by a scenario based health risk assessment to assess the carcinogenic and toxic human health risks associated with the consumption of distribution point water. None of the water extracts from the distribution points were above the detection limit in the YES bioassay, but the EEq values ranged from 0.002 to 0.114 ng/L using the T47D-KBluc bioassay. BPA, DEHA, DBP, DEHP, DINP E 1 , E 2, and EE 2 were detected in distribution point water samples. NP was below the detection limit for all the samples. The estrogenic activity and levels of target chemicals were comparable to the levels found in other countries. Overall the health risk assessment revealed acceptable health and carcinogenic risks associated with the consumption of distribution point water. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
BIPOLAR disorder, MENTAL depression, DEPRESSED persons, ANTIPSYCHOTIC agents, and MENTAL health
Abstract: Introduction: Although depressive moods are recognised as a very broad condition, there is still only one definition in international classifications for describing a major depressive episode (MDE). However, there is currently some controversy surround the treatment of depressive states. This includes SSRIs and suicide in adolescents, and more specifically in bipolar disorders where some depressions are made worse by antidepressants. New data has suggested that depressive states in BP patients can be improved by atypical antipsychotics. Aim: We aimed to assess 1) whether it is possible to distinguish different forms of bipolar depression using a dimensional approach, and 2) if, yes, whether there are different patterns of treatment response. Method: We characterised 60 bipolar patients with a Major Depressive Episode (DSM-IV) using a new tool (MATHYS: Multidimensional Assessment of Thymic States) assessing five fundamental dimensions (emotional reactivity, cognitive speed, psycho-motricity, motivation and senses perception) of mood states (full description elsewhere). Results: A cluster analysis using the items of the dimensional scale revealed two types of depressive states. One group (G1; N =38), which had a low score, is characterised by an inhibition in all dimensions, whereas the other group (G2; N =22) is characterised by an over-activation. Emotional reactivity is a useful dimension for discriminating these two types of depression (G1: hyporeactivity; G2: hyperreactivity) whereas sadness is not. A lower score on the MAThyS scale at day 1 was associated with a good response to antidepressant treatment, whereas higher scores were linked to a good response to a mood stabilizers alone or in combination with an antipsychotic. Conclusion: Bipolar depressive states are not homogeneous and this heterogeneity can explain various patterns of treatment response. A dimensional approach could be useful for discriminating the different forms of bipolar depression and to help manage treatment. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
ETHICS, PSYCHIATRISTS, MENTAL health personnel, PSYCHIATRY, and PSYCHOTHERAPISTS
Abstract: In legal proceedings the expert witness testimony may be considered a medical act only if the expert conducts his clinical observations within the limits established by the medical code of ethics. This will then allow the psychiatrist to help the judge reach a more informed legal decision. The difficulty inherent in this process is for the expert to give an exact answer (“yes” or “no”) to the questions formulated in order for the judge to arrive at an accurate decision. To better understand the evidence presented, the judge may ask empirical questions that require the expert witness to give testimony going beyond the information directly gathered through clinical observations. It is the expert witness'' responsibility to determine what amount of interpretation of material drawn from a clinical observation is appropriate to help the judge make a legal decision. This requires defining legal standards such as credibility, truth, and suggestibility. One must also recognize that the clinical observation of a victim is often the person''s first contact with a psychiatrist. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Litter (Trash), Waste management, Environmental responsibility, Environmentalism, Environmental sociology, Behavior, Social norms, Surveys, and Psychology
Two studies tested littering norm activation by trash can design. The first was a scenario study using a 4 (norm type: social injunctive vs. social descriptive vs. personal vs. control) × 2 (activation type: explicit vs. implicit activation) between-group design, with judgments of a litterer as the dependent variable. Explicit norm activation was more effective than implicit activation. A field study subsequently tested the effect of personal norm activation on actual littering behavior, following a 2 (explicit activation: no vs. yes) × 2 (Implicit activation: no vs. yes) between-group design. Here, both explicit activation through a verbal prompt and implicit activation through design had significant effects, reducing the amount of litter by 50%. A post hoc survey revealed significant effects of age and gender on the personal norm against littering. These findings helped explain the absence of norm activation effects in the youngest age group as found in the field study. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Environmental monitoring, Water pollution measurement, Water quality monitoring, Biological assay, Xenoestrogens, Analytical chemistry techniques, In vitro toxicity testing, and Evaluation
Bioassays are well established in the pharmaceutical industry and single compound analysis, but there is still uncertainty about their usefulness in environmental monitoring. We compared the responses of five bioassays designed to measure estrogenic activity (the yeast estrogen screen, ER-CALUX, MELN, T47D-KBluc, and E-SCREEN assays) and chemical analysis on extracts from four different water sources (groundwater, raw sewage, treated sewage, and river water). All five bioassays displayed similar trends and there was good agreement with analytical chemistry results. The data from the ER-CALUX and E-SCREEN bioassays were robust and predictable, and well-correlated with predictions from chemical analysis. The T47D-KBluc appeared likewise promising, but with a more limited sample size it was less compelling. The YES assay was less sensitive than the other assays by an order of magnitude, which resulted in a larger number of nondetects. The MELN assay was less predictable, although the possibility that this was due to laboratory-specific difficulties cannot be discounted. With standardized bioassay data analysis and consistency of operating protocols, bioanalytical tools are a promising advance in the development of a tiered approach to environmental water quality monitoring. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Sewage disposal plants, Sewage purification, Refuse disposal facilities, Environmental impact charges, Water quality management, Water utilities, Hospitals, Steroids, and Hormones
Influent and effluent samples originating from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (treating hospital wastewater and domestic wastewater, Belgium) have been analyzed in order to estimate their steroid hormone content. The natural estrogens estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and the synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) together with other steroid hormones progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) metabolites were detected in these samples. The hormone concentrations in both the hospital and the domestic WWTP samples were not significantly different and ranged from <0.2 ng EE2/L to 114 ng EE2/L, from <0.2 ng E1/L to 58 ng E1/L and from <0.2 ng P/L to >100 ng P/L. E2 was detected once at a concentration of 17 ng/L. In the domestic WWTP which comprises a conventional activated sludge treatment in parallel with a membrane bioreactor, no differences in estrogen removal efficiency could be observed for both treatments. In comparison to chemical analysis data, the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) appears to underestimate the influent estrogen concentrations, probably due to influent toxicity for the YES. Effluent estrogen concentrations, on the other hand, were overestimated by the YES test, probably due to the presence of other estrogenic compounds in the effluent. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Comtois-Marotte, Simon, Chappuis, Thomas, Vo Duy, Sung, Gilbert, Nicolas, Lajeunesse, André, Taktek, Salma, Desrosiers, Mélanie, Veilleux, Éloïse, and Sauvé, Sébastien
Chemosphere. Jan2017, Vol. 166, p400-411. 12p.
Organic water pollutants, Particulate matter, Endocrine disruptors, Sewage disposal plants, and Estrogen
Trace emerging contaminants (ECs) occur in both waste and surface waters that are rich in particulates that have been found to sorb several organic contaminants. An analytical method based on off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis was developed for the detection and quantification of 31 ECs from surface water, wastewater, suspended particulate matter (SPM) as well as sediments. Lyophilized sediments and air-dried SPM were subjected to ultrasonic extraction. Water samples and extracts were then concentrated and cleaned-up by off-line SPE. Quantification was realized using a Q Exactive mass spectrometer in both full scan (FS) and MS 2 modes. These two modes were optimized and compared to determine which one was the most suitable for each matrix studied. Yeast estrogen screen assay (YES-assay) adapted from the direct measurement of estrogenic activity without sample extraction was tested on filtered wastewater samples. An endocrine disrupting effect was detected in all effluent samples analyzed with estradiol equivalent concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 720 ng eq E2 L −1 for the WWTP-1 and 6.5–42 ng eq E2 L −1 for the WWTP-2. The analytical methods were also applied on six samples of surface water, the corresponding SPM, the sediments and thirty-nine effluent samples from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) sampled over a period of five months (February to June 2014). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Silva, Lídia Gaudêncio Ribeiro, Costa, Elizângela Pinheiro, Starling, Maria Clara Vieira Martins, dos Santos Azevedo, Taíza, Bottrel, Sue Ellen Costa, Pereira, Renata Oliveira, Sanson, Ananda Lima, Afonso, Robson José Cassia Franco, and Amorim, Camila C.
Kim, Samuel M, Zhao, Di, Podolanczuk, Anna J, Lutsey, Pamela L, Guallar, Eliseo, Kawut, Steven M, Barr, R Graham, Boer, Ian H de, Kestenbaum, Bryan R, Lederer, David J, Michos, Erin D, and de Boer, Ian H
Journal of Nutrition. Jul2018, Vol. 148 Issue 7, p1126-1134. 9p.