do Nascimento, Marilia Teresa Lima, Santos, Ana Dalva de Oliveira, Felix, Louise Cruz, Gomes, Giselle, de Oliveira e Sá, Mariana, da Cunha, Danieli Lima, Vieira, Natividade, Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann, Baptista Neto, José Antonio, and Bila, Daniele Maia
Water quality, Endocrine disruptors, Marine pollution, and Sewage disposal plants
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) can be found in domestic sewage, wastewater treatment plant effluents, natural water, rivers, lakes and in the marine environment. Jurujuba Sound, located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, receives untreated sewage into its waters, one the main sources of aquatic contamination in this area. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the estrogenic potential of water sampled from different depths and from areas with differential contamination levels throughout Jurujuba Sound. Water quality was evaluated and acute toxicity assays using Allviibrio fischeri were conducted, while estrogenic activity of the water samples was determined by a Yeast Estrogen Screening assay (YES). Water quality was mostly within the limits established for marine waters by the Brazilian legislation, with only DOC and ammoniacal nitrogen levels above the maximum permissible limits. No acute toxicity effects were observed in the Allivibrio fisheri assay. The YES assay detected moderate estrogenic activity in bottom water samples from 3 sampling stations, ranging from 0.5 to 3.2 ng L −1 , as well as in one surface water sample. Estrogenic activity was most frequently observed in samples from the bottom of the water column, indicating adsorption of estrogenic compounds to the sediment. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Pollination, Agricultural productivity, Crop yields, Sustainable agriculture, Pollinators, Apple orchards, Factorial experiment designs, and Orchards
The alarming loss of pollinator diversity world‐wide can reduce the productivity of pollinator‐dependent crops, which could have economic impacts. However, it is unclear to what extent the loss of a key native pollinator species affects crop production and farmer's profits.By experimentally manipulating the presence of colonies of a native bumblebee species Bombus pauloensis in eight apple orchards in South Argentina, we evaluated the impact of losing natural populations of a key native pollinator group on (a) crop yield, (b) pollination quality, and (c) farmer's profit. To do so, we performed a factorial experiment of pollinator exclusion (yes/no) and hand pollination (yes/no).Our results showed that biotic pollination increased ripe fruit set by 13% when compared to non‐biotic pollination. Additionally, fruit set and the number of fruits per apple tree was reduced by less than a half in those orchards where bumblebees were absent, even when honeybees were present at high densities. Consequently, farmer's profit was 2.4‐fold lower in farms lacking bumblebees than in farms hosting both pollinator species. The pollination experiment further suggested that the benefits of bumblebees could be mediated by improved pollen quality rather than quantity.Synthesis and applications. This study highlights the pervasive consequences of losing key pollinator functional groups, such as bumblebees, for apple production and local economies. Adopting pollinator‐friendly practices such as minimizing the use of synthetic inputs or restoring/maintaining semi‐natural habitats at farm and landscape scales, will have the double advantage of promoting biodiversity conservation, and increasing crop productivity and profitability for local farmers. Yet because the implementation of these practices can take time to deliver results, the management of native pollinator species can be a provisional complementary strategy to increase economic profitability of apple growers in the short term. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Water treatment plants, Ozonization, Estrogen, Hydrological research, and Yeast
The estrogenicity of waters collected from an important hydrological system in Brazil (Paraiba do Sul and Guandu Rivers) was assessed using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. Sampling was performed in rivers and at the outlets of conventional water treatment plants (WTP). The removal of estrogenic activity by ozonation and chlorination after conventional water treatment (clarification and sand filtration) was investigated employing samples of the Guandu River spiked with estrogens and bisphenol A (BPA). The results revealed a preoccupying incidence of estrogenic activity at levels higher than 1 ng L −1 along some points of the rivers. Another matter of concern was the number of samples from WTPs presenting estrogenicity surpassing 1 ng L −1 . The oxidation techniques (ozonation and chlorination) were effective for the removal of estrogenic activity and the combination of both techniques led to good results using less amounts of oxidants. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Arcanjo, Gemima S., dos Santos, Carolina R., Cavalcante, Bárbara F., Moura, Gabriela de A., Ricci, Bárbara C., Mounteer, Ann H., Santos, Lucilaine V.S., Queiroz, Luciano M., and Amaral, Míriam CS.
Chemosphere. Aug2022, Vol. 301, pN.PAG-N.PAG. 1p.
The contamination of water sources by pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and their effect on aquatic communities and human health have become an environmental concern worldwide. Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are an alternative to improve biological removal of recalcitrant organic compounds from municipal sewage. Their efficiency can be increased by using high retention membranes such as forward osmosis (FO) and membrane distillation (MD). Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the performance of an anaerobic osmotic MBR coupled with MD (OMBR-MD) in the treatment of municipal sewage containing PhACs and estrogenic activity. A submerged hybrid FO-MD module was integrated into the bioreactor. PhACs removal was higher than 96% due to biological degradation, biosorption and membrane retention. Biological removal of the PhACs was affected by the salinity build-up in the bioreactor, with reduction in biodegradation after 32 d. However, salinity increment had little or no effect on biosorption removal. The anaerobic OMBR-MD removed >99.9% of estrogenic activity, resulting in a distillate with 0.14 ng L−1 E2-eq, after 22 d, and 0.04 ng L−1 E2-eq, after 32 d. OMBR-MD treatment promoted reduction in environmental and human health risks from high to low, except for ketoprofen, which led to medium acute environmental and human health risks. Carcinogenic risks were reduced from unacceptable to negligible, regarding estrogenic activity. Thus, the hybrid anaerobic OMBR-MD demonstrated strong performance in reducing risks, even when human health is considered. [Display omitted] • Biological removal of estrogenic compounds was governed mainly by biodegradation. • Biological removal of micropollutants (MP) was affected by the salinity build-up. • MgCl 2 as draw solute reduced the negative impacts on biological removal of MP. • Ketoprofen in distillate led to medium acute environmental and human health risks. • Carcinogenic risk, regarding estrogenicity, reduced from unacceptable to negligible. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Van Zijl, Magdalena Catherina, Aneck-Hahn, Natalie Hildegard, Swart, Pieter, Hayward, Stefan, Genthe, Bettina, and De Jager, Christiaan
Chemosphere. Nov2017, Vol. 186, p305-313. 9p.
Health risk assessment, Endocrine disruptors, Water purification, Water supply, and Drinking water quality
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are ubiquitous in the environment and have been detected in drinking water from various countries. Although various water treatment processes can remove EDCs, chemicals can also migrate from pipes that transport water and contaminate drinking water. This study investigated the estrogenic activity in drinking water from various distribution points in Pretoria (City of Tshwane) (n = 40) and Cape Town (n = 40), South Africa, using the recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the T47D-KBluc reporter gene assay. The samples were collected seasonally over four sampling periods. The samples were also analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononylphthalate (DINP), 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), estrone (E 1 ) and ethynylestradiol (EE 2 ) using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrophotometry (UPLC-MS/MS). This was followed by a scenario based health risk assessment to assess the carcinogenic and toxic human health risks associated with the consumption of distribution point water. None of the water extracts from the distribution points were above the detection limit in the YES bioassay, but the EEq values ranged from 0.002 to 0.114 ng/L using the T47D-KBluc bioassay. BPA, DEHA, DBP, DEHP, DINP E 1 , E 2, and EE 2 were detected in distribution point water samples. NP was below the detection limit for all the samples. The estrogenic activity and levels of target chemicals were comparable to the levels found in other countries. Overall the health risk assessment revealed acceptable health and carcinogenic risks associated with the consumption of distribution point water. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]