Autonomy & independence movements, Glasnost, Indigenous peoples, Twentieth century, and History
Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia were the three Baltic republics of the Soviet Union. They shared a common European culture, although Estonia and Latvia had closer ties to Scandinavia and Germany, whereas Lithuania’s ties were with Poland and Central Europe. In the twentieth century, the fates of the three Baltic States were linked. All three became independent after the Russian Revolution in 1917, and all were forcibly annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940. No other of the national minorities of the Soviet Union had experienced sovereign independence during that time.
Gaulle, Charles de, 1890-1970 and Resignation from public office
On April 28, 1969, President Charles de Gaulle of France picked up the telephone in his home in Colombey-les-Deux-Eglises and dictated a brief farewell statement to the Elysée Palace in Paris: “I am ceasing to exercise my functions as president of the republic. This decision takes effect today at noon.” The call signaled the end of de Gaulle’s eleven-year reign as president of the French Republic. This period witnessed the birth of the Fifth French Republic, the end of the Algerian crisis, and the exit of France from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s defense structure. It saw the development of a French nuclear arsenal and striking force, and a French drive for leadership of the developing nations in Africa and Asia. The French people reacted with optimistic anticipation of new leadership with its greater attention to pressing social and economic problems at home. Nostalgia and a sense of loss tempered their reflections upon de Gaulle and the end of a great era in French history.
Although the beginnings of an identifiably Australian drama can be discerned in plays written during the 1930’s, it was not until about 1960 that plays of lasting or literary merit were frequently printed or performed. For convenience, ’s (pr. 1955) is often regarded as the precursor of modern Australian drama, yet in 1956, , in a article, “Standards in Australian Literature,” published by the University of Sydney, noted that “there is not much to say about Australian drama,” and Cecil Hadgraft, in (1960), a highly regarded conspectus, wholly omitted any consideration of plays.