do Nascimento, Marilia Teresa Lima, Santos, Ana Dalva de Oliveira, Felix, Louise Cruz, Gomes, Giselle, de Oliveira e Sá, Mariana, da Cunha, Danieli Lima, Vieira, Natividade, Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann, Baptista Neto, José Antonio, and Bila, Daniele Maia
Water quality, Endocrine disruptors, Marine pollution, and Sewage disposal plants
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) can be found in domestic sewage, wastewater treatment plant effluents, natural water, rivers, lakes and in the marine environment. Jurujuba Sound, located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, receives untreated sewage into its waters, one the main sources of aquatic contamination in this area. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the estrogenic potential of water sampled from different depths and from areas with differential contamination levels throughout Jurujuba Sound. Water quality was evaluated and acute toxicity assays using Allviibrio fischeri were conducted, while estrogenic activity of the water samples was determined by a Yeast Estrogen Screening assay (YES). Water quality was mostly within the limits established for marine waters by the Brazilian legislation, with only DOC and ammoniacal nitrogen levels above the maximum permissible limits. No acute toxicity effects were observed in the Allivibrio fisheri assay. The YES assay detected moderate estrogenic activity in bottom water samples from 3 sampling stations, ranging from 0.5 to 3.2 ng L −1 , as well as in one surface water sample. Estrogenic activity was most frequently observed in samples from the bottom of the water column, indicating adsorption of estrogenic compounds to the sediment. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Fresno Bee, The (CA), November 2, 1986 EDITORIALS HOME, 2pp
53 Authorizes the sale of $800 million in bonds to finance construction and improvement of public schools. Vote YES. 54 Authorizes the sale of $500 million in bonds to finance construction of state youth and adult correctional facilities. Vote YES. 55 Authorizes the sale of $100 million in bonds to finance improvements in domestic drinking water treatment systems...
Water treatment plants, Ozonization, Estrogen, Hydrological research, and Yeast
The estrogenicity of waters collected from an important hydrological system in Brazil (Paraiba do Sul and Guandu Rivers) was assessed using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. Sampling was performed in rivers and at the outlets of conventional water treatment plants (WTP). The removal of estrogenic activity by ozonation and chlorination after conventional water treatment (clarification and sand filtration) was investigated employing samples of the Guandu River spiked with estrogens and bisphenol A (BPA). The results revealed a preoccupying incidence of estrogenic activity at levels higher than 1 ng L −1 along some points of the rivers. Another matter of concern was the number of samples from WTPs presenting estrogenicity surpassing 1 ng L −1 . The oxidation techniques (ozonation and chlorination) were effective for the removal of estrogenic activity and the combination of both techniques led to good results using less amounts of oxidants. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Delaware State News (Dover, DE), May 1, 1998 Columns, 3pp
recorded a haunting rendition of ''I Only Have Eyes for You.'' It was (and still is) a big hit... a ''Pick of Frick.'' It could have been the theme song of the Dover Downs PR champ for standardbred racing, ''Mellifluous Marv'' Bachrad, last Sunday night. Fo r nearly two hours, all eyes of the 250 or more paying customers were on Bachrad as he reported on, lauded, and introduced a galaxy of winners at the 1997 U.S...
Van Zijl, Magdalena Catherina, Aneck-Hahn, Natalie Hildegard, Swart, Pieter, Hayward, Stefan, Genthe, Bettina, and De Jager, Christiaan
Chemosphere. Nov2017, Vol. 186, p305-313. 9p.
Health risk assessment, Endocrine disruptors, Water purification, Water supply, and Drinking water quality
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are ubiquitous in the environment and have been detected in drinking water from various countries. Although various water treatment processes can remove EDCs, chemicals can also migrate from pipes that transport water and contaminate drinking water. This study investigated the estrogenic activity in drinking water from various distribution points in Pretoria (City of Tshwane) (n = 40) and Cape Town (n = 40), South Africa, using the recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the T47D-KBluc reporter gene assay. The samples were collected seasonally over four sampling periods. The samples were also analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononylphthalate (DINP), 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), estrone (E 1 ) and ethynylestradiol (EE 2 ) using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrophotometry (UPLC-MS/MS). This was followed by a scenario based health risk assessment to assess the carcinogenic and toxic human health risks associated with the consumption of distribution point water. None of the water extracts from the distribution points were above the detection limit in the YES bioassay, but the EEq values ranged from 0.002 to 0.114 ng/L using the T47D-KBluc bioassay. BPA, DEHA, DBP, DEHP, DINP E 1 , E 2, and EE 2 were detected in distribution point water samples. NP was below the detection limit for all the samples. The estrogenic activity and levels of target chemicals were comparable to the levels found in other countries. Overall the health risk assessment revealed acceptable health and carcinogenic risks associated with the consumption of distribution point water. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
New York Times, The (NY), May 23, 2003 Foreign Desk Late Edition - Final, p. 14 4pp
Sending a mixed message to the French on his first visit here since before the war in Iraq, Secretary of State Colin L. Powell said today that France's support for lifting United Nations sanctions against Iraq was "a step in the right direction," but cautioned that "the disagreements of the past" have not been forgotten...
Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are responsible for the input of estrogenic contaminants into aquatic ecosystems, leading to widespread effects in wildlife. In the present work, levels of estrone (E1), 17α- and 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), and nonylphenol (NP) were quantified in effluents from WWTPs located in Ria de Aveiro (NW Portugal), as well as in the final effluent discharged into the Atlantic Ocean through the S. Jacinto submarine outfall. Reference sites, located at the entrance of the estuarine system and at the seaside, were also included. Samples were collected under summer (June 2005) and winter (February 2006) conditions. For the summer survey samples, estrogenicity and androgenicity were evaluated using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the yeast androgen screen (YAS) assay. Estrone levels varied from 0.5 to 85 ng/L in the summer survey and between L in winter; estradiol levels ranged from L in summer and were always L up to 2,350 ng/L in summer and from 10 to 2,410 ng/L in winter; BPA levels varied from 2.8 to 897 ng/L in summer and from 2.6 up to 316 ng/L in winter. Biological assays disclosed estrogenic levels at reference sites lower than the ones reported to pose risk for wildlife. However, the S. Jacinto outfall effluent released high concentrations of NP and BPA into the marine environment. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Litter (Trash), Waste management, Environmental responsibility, Environmentalism, Environmental sociology, Behavior, Social norms, Surveys, and Psychology
Two studies tested littering norm activation by trash can design. The first was a scenario study using a 4 (norm type: social injunctive vs. social descriptive vs. personal vs. control) × 2 (activation type: explicit vs. implicit activation) between-group design, with judgments of a litterer as the dependent variable. Explicit norm activation was more effective than implicit activation. A field study subsequently tested the effect of personal norm activation on actual littering behavior, following a 2 (explicit activation: no vs. yes) × 2 (Implicit activation: no vs. yes) between-group design. Here, both explicit activation through a verbal prompt and implicit activation through design had significant effects, reducing the amount of litter by 50%. A post hoc survey revealed significant effects of age and gender on the personal norm against littering. These findings helped explain the absence of norm activation effects in the youngest age group as found in the field study. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Environmental monitoring, Water pollution measurement, Water quality monitoring, Biological assay, Xenoestrogens, Analytical chemistry techniques, In vitro toxicity testing, and Evaluation
Bioassays are well established in the pharmaceutical industry and single compound analysis, but there is still uncertainty about their usefulness in environmental monitoring. We compared the responses of five bioassays designed to measure estrogenic activity (the yeast estrogen screen, ER-CALUX, MELN, T47D-KBluc, and E-SCREEN assays) and chemical analysis on extracts from four different water sources (groundwater, raw sewage, treated sewage, and river water). All five bioassays displayed similar trends and there was good agreement with analytical chemistry results. The data from the ER-CALUX and E-SCREEN bioassays were robust and predictable, and well-correlated with predictions from chemical analysis. The T47D-KBluc appeared likewise promising, but with a more limited sample size it was less compelling. The YES assay was less sensitive than the other assays by an order of magnitude, which resulted in a larger number of nondetects. The MELN assay was less predictable, although the possibility that this was due to laboratory-specific difficulties cannot be discounted. With standardized bioassay data analysis and consistency of operating protocols, bioanalytical tools are a promising advance in the development of a tiered approach to environmental water quality monitoring. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Comtois-Marotte, Simon, Chappuis, Thomas, Vo Duy, Sung, Gilbert, Nicolas, Lajeunesse, André, Taktek, Salma, Desrosiers, Mélanie, Veilleux, Éloïse, and Sauvé, Sébastien
Chemosphere. Jan2017, Vol. 166, p400-411. 12p.
Organic water pollutants, Particulate matter, Endocrine disruptors, Sewage disposal plants, and Estrogen
Trace emerging contaminants (ECs) occur in both waste and surface waters that are rich in particulates that have been found to sorb several organic contaminants. An analytical method based on off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis was developed for the detection and quantification of 31 ECs from surface water, wastewater, suspended particulate matter (SPM) as well as sediments. Lyophilized sediments and air-dried SPM were subjected to ultrasonic extraction. Water samples and extracts were then concentrated and cleaned-up by off-line SPE. Quantification was realized using a Q Exactive mass spectrometer in both full scan (FS) and MS 2 modes. These two modes were optimized and compared to determine which one was the most suitable for each matrix studied. Yeast estrogen screen assay (YES-assay) adapted from the direct measurement of estrogenic activity without sample extraction was tested on filtered wastewater samples. An endocrine disrupting effect was detected in all effluent samples analyzed with estradiol equivalent concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 720 ng eq E2 L −1 for the WWTP-1 and 6.5–42 ng eq E2 L −1 for the WWTP-2. The analytical methods were also applied on six samples of surface water, the corresponding SPM, the sediments and thirty-nine effluent samples from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) sampled over a period of five months (February to June 2014). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Sewage disposal plants, Sewage purification, Refuse disposal facilities, Environmental impact charges, Water quality management, Water utilities, Hospitals, Steroids, and Hormones
Influent and effluent samples originating from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (treating hospital wastewater and domestic wastewater, Belgium) have been analyzed in order to estimate their steroid hormone content. The natural estrogens estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and the synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) together with other steroid hormones progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) metabolites were detected in these samples. The hormone concentrations in both the hospital and the domestic WWTP samples were not significantly different and ranged from <0.2 ng EE2/L to 114 ng EE2/L, from <0.2 ng E1/L to 58 ng E1/L and from <0.2 ng P/L to >100 ng P/L. E2 was detected once at a concentration of 17 ng/L. In the domestic WWTP which comprises a conventional activated sludge treatment in parallel with a membrane bioreactor, no differences in estrogen removal efficiency could be observed for both treatments. In comparison to chemical analysis data, the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) appears to underestimate the influent estrogen concentrations, probably due to influent toxicity for the YES. Effluent estrogen concentrations, on the other hand, were overestimated by the YES test, probably due to the presence of other estrogenic compounds in the effluent. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]