Litter (Trash), Waste management, Environmental responsibility, Environmentalism, Environmental sociology, Behavior, Social norms, Surveys, and Psychology
Two studies tested littering norm activation by trash can design. The first was a scenario study using a 4 (norm type: social injunctive vs. social descriptive vs. personal vs. control) × 2 (activation type: explicit vs. implicit activation) between-group design, with judgments of a litterer as the dependent variable. Explicit norm activation was more effective than implicit activation. A field study subsequently tested the effect of personal norm activation on actual littering behavior, following a 2 (explicit activation: no vs. yes) × 2 (Implicit activation: no vs. yes) between-group design. Here, both explicit activation through a verbal prompt and implicit activation through design had significant effects, reducing the amount of litter by 50%. A post hoc survey revealed significant effects of age and gender on the personal norm against littering. These findings helped explain the absence of norm activation effects in the youngest age group as found in the field study. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine. 2020 Supplement 6, Vol. 42, pS63-S67. 5p.
STUDENT counselors, AUTISM, AUTISTIC people, COMMUNITY health workers, AUTISM in children, PSYCHOMETRICS, and PEOPLE with disabilities
Introduction: Autism is included as a certifiable disability in the Indian Rights of Persons with Disability Act, 2016. The Indian Scale for Assessment of Autism (ISAA), developed by the Government of India and mandated for certifying disability, is a detailed instrument that needs trained mental health experts and takes time to administer. The current project was planned to develop a simple, easy to use screening tool based on the ISAA to identify possible cases in the community. Methods: The project is planned in three phases. During the first phase, data collected during the development of the ISAA (N = 433/436 children with autism) will be used to identify questions answered as frequently, mostly, and always. During the second phase, the psychometric properties of the screening tool based on these items will be evaluated among research participants recruited from hospitals and special schools (n = 100). In the third phase, the screening questionnaire will be administered in the community (n = 500). Results: The most frequently answered questions will be selected for inclusion in the proposed screening tool. The number of items in the screening tool will be kept as few as possible, with yes or no responses Discussion: Indian Autism Screening Questionnaire (IASQ) will be tested as a screening version of ISAA, which can be used by community health workers, teachers, or school counselors. The IASQ will not provide a diagnosis of autism. A positive screening result should be followed by a thorough assessment by a trained specialist. Analyzing the psychometric properties of the test can help ensure cost-effective screening of the community to identify autism. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Epilepsy Currents. Jan2008, Vol. 8 Issue 1, p19-22. 4p. 1 Black and White Photograph.
SPASMS, CONVULSIONS, EPILEPSY, MUSCLE cramps, BRAIN diseases, and DEVELOPMENTAL disabilities
Do early seizures beget seizures later in life? Clinical data and experimental observations seem to answer that question differently, with a no and a yes, respectively, which may stem from an inadequate readout of what experimental data actually do tell us and a possible simplification of what clinical data indicate. Using specific experimental examples, it is possible to show that in the developing brain, seizures do produce long-lasting alterations of neuronal excitability, although ongoing seizures are not observed in adults. The findings suggest that the long-lasting changes in developmental programs and network activity that seizures induce do not necessarily lead to epilepsy, unless other events that remain to be identified occur. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Aug2005, Vol. 50 Issue 9, p507-508. 2p.
SUICIDE prevention, MENTAL health services, SUICIDE, MEDICAL care, PSYCHIATRISTS, MENTAL health personnel, MENTAL depression, INTERPROFESSIONAL relations, PSYCHIATRY, and PSYCHOLOGICAL aspects
This article examines the role of psychiatrists in preventing suicide in Australia. It is noted that psychiatrists can help both in populations and in their patients but they cannot do it alone. It is recommended that primary care physicians need more training and education so that they can detect, engage in treatment and treat in collaboration patients with depression and substance abuse. Here again, psychiatrists can play a role through shared care models. Second, insufficient coordination between psychiatric services and addiction services was found in more than one-third of cases.