do Nascimento, Marilia Teresa Lima, Santos, Ana Dalva de Oliveira, Felix, Louise Cruz, Gomes, Giselle, de Oliveira e Sá, Mariana, da Cunha, Danieli Lima, Vieira, Natividade, Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann, Baptista Neto, José Antonio, and Bila, Daniele Maia
Water quality, Endocrine disruptors, Marine pollution, and Sewage disposal plants
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) can be found in domestic sewage, wastewater treatment plant effluents, natural water, rivers, lakes and in the marine environment. Jurujuba Sound, located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, receives untreated sewage into its waters, one the main sources of aquatic contamination in this area. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the estrogenic potential of water sampled from different depths and from areas with differential contamination levels throughout Jurujuba Sound. Water quality was evaluated and acute toxicity assays using Allviibrio fischeri were conducted, while estrogenic activity of the water samples was determined by a Yeast Estrogen Screening assay (YES). Water quality was mostly within the limits established for marine waters by the Brazilian legislation, with only DOC and ammoniacal nitrogen levels above the maximum permissible limits. No acute toxicity effects were observed in the Allivibrio fisheri assay. The YES assay detected moderate estrogenic activity in bottom water samples from 3 sampling stations, ranging from 0.5 to 3.2 ng L −1 , as well as in one surface water sample. Estrogenic activity was most frequently observed in samples from the bottom of the water column, indicating adsorption of estrogenic compounds to the sediment. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Pollination, Agricultural productivity, Crop yields, Sustainable agriculture, Pollinators, Apple orchards, Factorial experiment designs, and Orchards
The alarming loss of pollinator diversity world‐wide can reduce the productivity of pollinator‐dependent crops, which could have economic impacts. However, it is unclear to what extent the loss of a key native pollinator species affects crop production and farmer's profits.By experimentally manipulating the presence of colonies of a native bumblebee species Bombus pauloensis in eight apple orchards in South Argentina, we evaluated the impact of losing natural populations of a key native pollinator group on (a) crop yield, (b) pollination quality, and (c) farmer's profit. To do so, we performed a factorial experiment of pollinator exclusion (yes/no) and hand pollination (yes/no).Our results showed that biotic pollination increased ripe fruit set by 13% when compared to non‐biotic pollination. Additionally, fruit set and the number of fruits per apple tree was reduced by less than a half in those orchards where bumblebees were absent, even when honeybees were present at high densities. Consequently, farmer's profit was 2.4‐fold lower in farms lacking bumblebees than in farms hosting both pollinator species. The pollination experiment further suggested that the benefits of bumblebees could be mediated by improved pollen quality rather than quantity.Synthesis and applications. This study highlights the pervasive consequences of losing key pollinator functional groups, such as bumblebees, for apple production and local economies. Adopting pollinator‐friendly practices such as minimizing the use of synthetic inputs or restoring/maintaining semi‐natural habitats at farm and landscape scales, will have the double advantage of promoting biodiversity conservation, and increasing crop productivity and profitability for local farmers. Yet because the implementation of these practices can take time to deliver results, the management of native pollinator species can be a provisional complementary strategy to increase economic profitability of apple growers in the short term. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Water treatment plants, Ozonization, Estrogen, Hydrological research, and Yeast
The estrogenicity of waters collected from an important hydrological system in Brazil (Paraiba do Sul and Guandu Rivers) was assessed using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. Sampling was performed in rivers and at the outlets of conventional water treatment plants (WTP). The removal of estrogenic activity by ozonation and chlorination after conventional water treatment (clarification and sand filtration) was investigated employing samples of the Guandu River spiked with estrogens and bisphenol A (BPA). The results revealed a preoccupying incidence of estrogenic activity at levels higher than 1 ng L −1 along some points of the rivers. Another matter of concern was the number of samples from WTPs presenting estrogenicity surpassing 1 ng L −1 . The oxidation techniques (ozonation and chlorination) were effective for the removal of estrogenic activity and the combination of both techniques led to good results using less amounts of oxidants. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Arcanjo, Gemima S., dos Santos, Carolina R., Cavalcante, Bárbara F., Moura, Gabriela de A., Ricci, Bárbara C., Mounteer, Ann H., Santos, Lucilaine V.S., Queiroz, Luciano M., and Amaral, Míriam CS.
Chemosphere. Aug2022, Vol. 301, pN.PAG-N.PAG. 1p.
The contamination of water sources by pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and their effect on aquatic communities and human health have become an environmental concern worldwide. Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are an alternative to improve biological removal of recalcitrant organic compounds from municipal sewage. Their efficiency can be increased by using high retention membranes such as forward osmosis (FO) and membrane distillation (MD). Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the performance of an anaerobic osmotic MBR coupled with MD (OMBR-MD) in the treatment of municipal sewage containing PhACs and estrogenic activity. A submerged hybrid FO-MD module was integrated into the bioreactor. PhACs removal was higher than 96% due to biological degradation, biosorption and membrane retention. Biological removal of the PhACs was affected by the salinity build-up in the bioreactor, with reduction in biodegradation after 32 d. However, salinity increment had little or no effect on biosorption removal. The anaerobic OMBR-MD removed >99.9% of estrogenic activity, resulting in a distillate with 0.14 ng L−1 E2-eq, after 22 d, and 0.04 ng L−1 E2-eq, after 32 d. OMBR-MD treatment promoted reduction in environmental and human health risks from high to low, except for ketoprofen, which led to medium acute environmental and human health risks. Carcinogenic risks were reduced from unacceptable to negligible, regarding estrogenic activity. Thus, the hybrid anaerobic OMBR-MD demonstrated strong performance in reducing risks, even when human health is considered. [Display omitted] • Biological removal of estrogenic compounds was governed mainly by biodegradation. • Biological removal of micropollutants (MP) was affected by the salinity build-up. • MgCl 2 as draw solute reduced the negative impacts on biological removal of MP. • Ketoprofen in distillate led to medium acute environmental and human health risks. • Carcinogenic risk, regarding estrogenicity, reduced from unacceptable to negligible. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
ATHLETES, FATIGUE (Physiology), PHYSICAL education, QUESTIONNAIRES, and SPORTS medicine
Abstract: Objective. – The group of consensus of the French Society of Sport Medicine prepared a questionnaire in order to detect early stage of overtraining. This questionnaire includes 54 items which the subjects have to answer by “yes” or by “not”. A score is then established by summing the “yes”. Taking into account the formulation of the questions, this score will increase with the training load. The aim of our study is to propose a score of overtraining, and also to highlight the importance of some items or groups of items. Methods. – Our population consisted of French sportsmen of both sexes, from different geographical origins, age, sporting practice and level. A multicentric analysis was carried out on the basis of 1984 collected questionnaires. We analysed the evolution of the percentage of subjects, the weight of various parameters (age, overtraining) and the evolution of the frequency of each item as a function of the score. Results. – A score of 20 was proposed as an overtraining state threshold, which has to be confirmed on the basis of correlations with biological indices, in particular with a state of clinically established overtraining. Sixteen items present a linear evolution traducing an increase of tiredness according to the overload. Six items have a logarithmic increase, traducing a kind of “background noise”. The others items (N =32) presenting a non-linear increase are sign of a decompensation phenomenon. Conclusion. – This analysis by item make possible an improve of the questionnaire, by selecting items groups which may give an orientation on the type of tiredness. It also confirms the usefulness of this questionnaire as a tool for the follow-up of the training state of sportsmen, a score equal to or higher than 20 constituting the overtraining threshold. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Wastewater treatment, Sewage purification, Sewage disposal plants, Yeast-free diet, Leavening agents, and Fire assay
Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are responsible for the input of estrogenic contaminants into aquatic ecosystems, leading to widespread effects in wildlife. In the present work, levels of estrone (E1), 17α- and 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), and nonylphenol (NP) were quantified in effluents from WWTPs located in Ria de Aveiro (NW Portugal), as well as in the final effluent discharged into the Atlantic Ocean through the S. Jacinto submarine outfall. Reference sites, located at the entrance of the estuarine system and at the seaside, were also included. Samples were collected under summer (June 2005) and winter (February 2006) conditions. For the summer survey samples, estrogenicity and androgenicity were evaluated using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the yeast androgen screen (YAS) assay. Estrone levels varied from 0.5 to 85 ng/L in the summer survey and between L in winter; estradiol levels ranged from L in summer and were always L up to 2,350 ng/L in summer and from 10 to 2,410 ng/L in winter; BPA levels varied from 2.8 to 897 ng/L in summer and from 2.6 up to 316 ng/L in winter. Biological assays disclosed estrogenic levels at reference sites lower than the ones reported to pose risk for wildlife. However, the S. Jacinto outfall effluent released high concentrations of NP and BPA into the marine environment. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
BIPOLAR disorder, MENTAL depression, DEPRESSED persons, ANTIPSYCHOTIC agents, and MENTAL health
Abstract: Introduction: Although depressive moods are recognised as a very broad condition, there is still only one definition in international classifications for describing a major depressive episode (MDE). However, there is currently some controversy surround the treatment of depressive states. This includes SSRIs and suicide in adolescents, and more specifically in bipolar disorders where some depressions are made worse by antidepressants. New data has suggested that depressive states in BP patients can be improved by atypical antipsychotics. Aim: We aimed to assess 1) whether it is possible to distinguish different forms of bipolar depression using a dimensional approach, and 2) if, yes, whether there are different patterns of treatment response. Method: We characterised 60 bipolar patients with a Major Depressive Episode (DSM-IV) using a new tool (MATHYS: Multidimensional Assessment of Thymic States) assessing five fundamental dimensions (emotional reactivity, cognitive speed, psycho-motricity, motivation and senses perception) of mood states (full description elsewhere). Results: A cluster analysis using the items of the dimensional scale revealed two types of depressive states. One group (G1; N =38), which had a low score, is characterised by an inhibition in all dimensions, whereas the other group (G2; N =22) is characterised by an over-activation. Emotional reactivity is a useful dimension for discriminating these two types of depression (G1: hyporeactivity; G2: hyperreactivity) whereas sadness is not. A lower score on the MAThyS scale at day 1 was associated with a good response to antidepressant treatment, whereas higher scores were linked to a good response to a mood stabilizers alone or in combination with an antipsychotic. Conclusion: Bipolar depressive states are not homogeneous and this heterogeneity can explain various patterns of treatment response. A dimensional approach could be useful for discriminating the different forms of bipolar depression and to help manage treatment. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
ETHICS, PSYCHIATRISTS, MENTAL health personnel, PSYCHIATRY, and PSYCHOTHERAPISTS
Abstract: In legal proceedings the expert witness testimony may be considered a medical act only if the expert conducts his clinical observations within the limits established by the medical code of ethics. This will then allow the psychiatrist to help the judge reach a more informed legal decision. The difficulty inherent in this process is for the expert to give an exact answer (“yes” or “no”) to the questions formulated in order for the judge to arrive at an accurate decision. To better understand the evidence presented, the judge may ask empirical questions that require the expert witness to give testimony going beyond the information directly gathered through clinical observations. It is the expert witness'' responsibility to determine what amount of interpretation of material drawn from a clinical observation is appropriate to help the judge make a legal decision. This requires defining legal standards such as credibility, truth, and suggestibility. One must also recognize that the clinical observation of a victim is often the person''s first contact with a psychiatrist. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Van Zijl, Magdalena Catherina, Aneck-Hahn, Natalie Hildegard, Swart, Pieter, Hayward, Stefan, Genthe, Bettina, and De Jager, Christiaan
Chemosphere. Nov2017, Vol. 186, p305-313. 9p.
Health risk assessment, Endocrine disruptors, Water purification, Water supply, and Drinking water quality
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are ubiquitous in the environment and have been detected in drinking water from various countries. Although various water treatment processes can remove EDCs, chemicals can also migrate from pipes that transport water and contaminate drinking water. This study investigated the estrogenic activity in drinking water from various distribution points in Pretoria (City of Tshwane) (n = 40) and Cape Town (n = 40), South Africa, using the recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the T47D-KBluc reporter gene assay. The samples were collected seasonally over four sampling periods. The samples were also analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononylphthalate (DINP), 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), estrone (E 1 ) and ethynylestradiol (EE 2 ) using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrophotometry (UPLC-MS/MS). This was followed by a scenario based health risk assessment to assess the carcinogenic and toxic human health risks associated with the consumption of distribution point water. None of the water extracts from the distribution points were above the detection limit in the YES bioassay, but the EEq values ranged from 0.002 to 0.114 ng/L using the T47D-KBluc bioassay. BPA, DEHA, DBP, DEHP, DINP E 1 , E 2, and EE 2 were detected in distribution point water samples. NP was below the detection limit for all the samples. The estrogenic activity and levels of target chemicals were comparable to the levels found in other countries. Overall the health risk assessment revealed acceptable health and carcinogenic risks associated with the consumption of distribution point water. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
For the development of the subject we first need the concept of constitutional state -aluding to its substantive distancing with the old rule of law-, and seeking its direct entanglement with a broad democratic order, yes, in Colombia, impaired with the continuity of the everlasting reformist custom of the Political Charter, basically along the way of art. 375 constitutional (and mainly on initiative or with the endorsement of the executive in office), which, for that task, the referred rule empowers the Congress of the Republic through the figure of legislative acts. Next (point 2), we alluded to tht' theme of the different constitutional reforms that have cracked the text of the Charter, and on them we need and develop (point 3), in our opinion, one of the most reactionary reforms, if not the most, altering the precarious state legitimacy achieved with the issuance of the Constitution itself. We refer here to the detriment that, by different legal paths, the democratic figure of the administrative career has suffered. In this last aspect we specify the obstinacy of the Uribe Velez period for depreciating and despising the importance of the institution of merit in the public service; inheritance received by the Santos government, trying to give continuity. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]