DEMOCRACY, INTERNATIONAL relations -- Government policy, POLITICAL stability, NATIONAL security -- United States, and UNITED States
Many democracies in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Latin America and Southeast Asia are veering toward autocracy, stalling or reversing decades of democratic progress. Leaders have postponed elections, jailed opponents, restricted personal and press freedoms and rewritten constitutions to legalize their actions. Freedoms have eroded in such countries as Russia, Venezuela, Turkey, the Philippines and Poland. In addition, Western democracies are struggling with economic, social and political instability, corruption, immigration and frustrated voters who have turned to populist-nationalist leaders for solutions. Donald Trump, elected president in a wave of populist fervor in the United States, has vowed to stop promoting democracy overseas and to withdraw from some treaties. Meanwhile, Russia seeks to undermine democratic institutions, free elections and liberal Western alliances, and China is wooing developing nations in an effort to show that countries can prosper without the constraints of democracy. Still, some observers are optimistic about democracy's future, saying that new democracies are emerging and others are showing surprising resilience. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
New Republic. 3/7/55, Vol. 132 Issue 10, p12-14. 3p.
POLITICAL parties, CITY council members, CIVIL rights, COMMUNISM, and HUMAN rights
The article presents information about the political career of politician Harvey Marshall Matusow. In 1946, Matusow joined the American Youth for Democracy and in 1947 he became a member of the Communist Party. Between this year and 1951, he sold books at the Jefferson School in New York, tended a switchboard at Communist Party County headquarters, worked for People's Songs Inc., became a charter member of the Labor Youth League and the Young Progressives of America, enrolled in the Civil Rights Congress, the American Labor Party and the Progressive Party, worked for the re-election of Communist Ben Davis as New York City councilman and joined the United Office Workers, one of the unions expelled by the CIO. In February 1950, Matusow became an informer for the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Human Rights Quarterly. Nov94, Vol. 16 Issue 4, p740-752. 13p.
HUMAN rights, CONFERENCES & conventions, COMMUNISM, TOTALITARIANISM, MEETINGS, and CONSTITUTIONS
The article focuses on the debate between the notion of universality of human rights and the consideration of regional social and cultural differences. This debate was center-stage at the second UN World Conference on Human Rights, held in June 1993 in Vienna, Austria. The Western states were reportedly concerned that the universality of human rights might be eroded. Their first priority was damage control to insure that the conference issued a strong endorsement of the universality of human rights and rejected the idea that such rights can be measured differently in some countries. The U.S. administration dismissed the argument that any definition of human rights should consider regional social and cultural differences. It countered that such a position is a screen behind which authoritarian governments can perpetuate abuses. The Universal Declaration guarantees the freedom to choose one's religion and spouse, both of which are restricted under Islamic law. Some commentators argue that it is not Islam that the West has to fear as its great, new ideological competitor after the fall of Communism, rather the West should fear the ideology of soft authoritarianism coming from Asia's most prosperous states. There is also the complication of states reserving the right to implement an international human rights instrument only to the extent that it does not conflict with national constitutions and laws.