New Republic. 7/29/78, Vol. 179 Issue 5, p5-8. 3p.
INTERNATIONAL relations, CARTER, Jimmy, 1924-, TECHNOLOGY transfer, HUMAN rights, PRESIDENTS of the United States, UNITED States, and SOVIET Union
Focuses on the situations that resulted to U.S. President Jimmy Carter's decisions regarding the country's foreign relations with the Soviet Union. Pressure on Carter applied by senators and allies in the administration, who threatened that Congress would take unilateral action to limit technology transfers to the Soviet Union if Carter did not do so himself; Carter's cancellation of the sale of a Sperry Univac computer to the news agency Tass for use during the 1980 Olympics; Terms of the Final Act of the Helsinki, Finland conference which the Soviet Union failed to fulfill; Message of Carter's Presidential Decision Memorandum 18.
History, International relations, Amnesty International, Amnesty International USA, Human Rights, Human Rights Watch, and International League for the Rights of Man
Using archival collections and published primary sources, this dissertation offers a bottom-up, social historical perspective on how several international human rights non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the United States during the Cold War--the International League for the Rights of Man, Amnesty International USA (AIUSA), Americas Watch and Helsinki Watch--formed a transnational advocacy network that exposed abuses and shamed governments into ending them. It finds that a small circle of rooted cosmopolitans--a term used by Sidney Tarrow to describe "outsiders inside/insiders outside"--was responsible for the emergence of a movement during the mid-1970s that was centered in New York, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C. The activists profiled here were not the powerful, but neither were they the powerless. They tended to be highly-educated professionals who were drawn into activism after their moral sensibilities had been greatly offended. The emotional connections that formed between activists and victims thus arose within the historical context of intensifying market relations in this contemporary era of globalization. But why the spectacle of distant suffering drove some people to devote themselves to advancing the cause of human rights can be answered only in deeply personal terms. Biography is crucial to understanding how this transformation occurred for them: religious beliefs, a long-held cultural interest, a friend who experienced political repression and symbolized the plight of an entire country, previous work on domestic civil liberties, or their own victimization. Their worldview was based on a far-reaching conception of one's ethical responsibilities. As Kwame Anthony Appiah has argued, lives are given value by the identities that shape them--the philosophical basis of a cosmopolitanism that is premised upon "kindness to strangers." Activists proceeded in a similar path from an abstract notion of the rights-bearing individual to immersing themselves in the lived experiences of prisoners, dissidents, and other persecuted individuals they may have never actually met in person. Lacking the authority of state actors, activists had to act as moral entrepreneurs. Their social value was providing elites with information. The researchers who gathered the material for the reports published by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch became experts who were called to testify before Congress. Journalists quoted their findings to counter or corroborate the official version of events. NGOs also developed legal expertise that they used to expand the reach of international human rights law. As this subfield became more widely taught at law schools, some of which established programs dedicated to it, a generation of lawyer-activists took the international human rights movement in a new, more litigious direction. Publicity was just as important. It was easier to mobilize public opinion against repressive governments if the victims were well known; even better if activists became part of the story. By reaffirming their accuracy and objectivity, activists could gain the trust of reliable donors, philanthropic foundations, wealthy benefactors, and celebrities, all of whom became important sources of income that enabled their NGOs to expand during the last three decades of the twentieth century.
New Republic. 8/15/83-8/22/83, Vol. 189 Issue 7/8, p11-14. 3p.
INTERNMENT of Japanese Americans, 1942-1945, WORLD War II -- Evacuation of civilians, CIVIL rights, INTERNATIONAL relations, CIVILIAN evacuation, HUMAN rights, UNITED States. Dept. of Justice, and UNITED States
Focuses on the civil liberties Japanese Americans following World War II. Violation of their rights and liberties; Forced evacuation of thousands of American citizens and resident aliens of Japanese origin from the West Coast and their confinement in internment camps; Question of what should be done by the U.S. government to make amends after so many years; Advice of the U.S. Congress to establish a foundation to sponsor research on civil liberties issues.
Schweiker, Richard S., Palomo, Eduardo, Burstein, Paul, and Pellarin, Eric
New Republic. 9/2/85, Vol. 193 Issue 10, p2-42. 3p.
LETTERS to the editor, TAXATION, SOCIAL conditions of women, ASIAN Americans, INTERNATIONAL relations, CONFERENCES conventions, ETHNIC groups, HUMAN rights, and PERIODICALS
Presents letters to the editor referencing articles published in previous issues. "Tax-Reform Watch," which was published in the July 15 and 22 issues; "The Guatemalan Silence," which was published in the June 10 issue; "The Triumph of Asian-Americans," which was published in the July 15 and 22 issues; Views on the assertion by a journalist that women around the world have no common concerns that might be addressed at a worldwide conference.