The role of Congress is essential to any study of American government and politics. It would be impossible to gain a complete understanding of the American system of government without an appreciation of the nature and workings of this essential body. This is an introductory text aimed at undergraduate students studying American politics and American society. It looks at the workings of the US Congress and uses the Republican period of ascendancy, which lasted from 1994 until 2000, as an example of how the Congress works in practice. The book illustrates the basic principles of Congress using contemporary and recent examples, while also drawing attention to the changes that took place in the 1990s. The period of Republican control is absent from many of the standard texts and is of considerable academic interest for a number of reasons, not least the 1994 election, the budget deadlock in 1995 and the Clinton impeachment scandal of 1999. The book traces the origin and development of the US Congress, before looking in depth at the role of representatives and senators, the committee system, parties in Congress, and the relationship between Congress and the President, the media and interest groups.
Marston, Jerrilyn Greene and Marston, Jerrilyn Greene
Executive power--United States--History--18th century
A persuasive reassessment of the nature of the institution that was in the forefront of the American revolutionary struggle with Great Britain--the Continental Congress. Providing a completely new perspective on the history of the First and Second Continental Congresses before independence, the author argues that American expectations regarding the proper functions of a legitimate central government were formed under the British monarchy, and that these functions were primarily executive.Originally published in 1987.The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Zimmerman, Joseph Francis and Zimmerman, Joseph Francis
Interstate relations--United States, State governments--United States, and Federal government--United States
An insightful reassessment of the relationship between the U.S. Congress and the states.Reassessing the relationship between the federal government and the states, Congress: Facilitator of State Action examines how the U.S. Congress routinely and necessarily devolves power to the states. A host of congressional statutes reveal the ways in which the U.S. Congress facilitates state action to solve certain problems, including the enforcement of respective criminal laws. Financial and nonfinancial assistance to the states are elucidated and assessed, including technical assistance and the establishment of such programs as the National Driver Register. Comprehensive and timely, this book illuminates a key dynamic in the country's political system and offers a more complex and accurate theory of federalism.Joseph F. Zimmerman is Professor of Political Science at the University at Albany, State University of New York. His many books include Contemporary American Federalism: The Growth of National Power, Second Edition; The Silence of Congress: State Taxation of Interstate Commerce; and The Government and Politics of New York State: Second Edition, all published by SUNY Press.Joseph F. Zimmerman is Professor of Political Science at the University at Albany, State University of New York. His many books include Contemporary American Federalism: The Growth of National Power, Second Edition; The Silence of Congress: State Taxation of Interstate Commerce; and The Government and Politics of New York State: Second Edition, all published by SUNY Press.
Finkelman, Paul, United States Capitol Historical Society, Kennon, Donald R., Finkelman, Paul, United States Capitol Historical Society, and Kennon, Donald R.
Slavery--United States--Legal status of slaves in free states, Fugitive slaves--Legal status, laws, etc.--United States, Slavery--United States--Extension to the territories, Slavery--Political aspects--United States--History--19th century, Sectionalism (United States)--History--19th century, and Slavery--Law and legislation--United States--History--19th century
During the long decade from 1848 to 1861 America was like a train speeding down the track, without an engineer or brakes. The new territories acquired from Mexico had vastly increased the size of the nation, but debate over their status—and more importantly the status of slavery within them—paralyzed the nation. Southerners gained access to the territories and a draconian fugitive slave law in the Compromise of 1850, but this only exacerbated sectional tensions. Virtually all northerners, even those who supported the law because they believed that it would preserve the union, despised being turned into slave catchers. In 1854, in the Kansas-Nebraska Act, Congress repealed the ban on slavery in the remaining unorganized territories. In 1857, in the Dred Scott case, the Supreme Court held that all bans on slavery in the territories were unconstitutional. Meanwhile, northern whites, free blacks, and fugitive slaves resisted the enforcement of the 1850 fugitive slave law. In Congress members carried weapons and Representative Preston Brooks assaulted Senator Charles Sumner with a cane, nearly killing him. This was the decade of the 1850s and these were the issues Congress grappled with. This volume of new essays examines many of these issues, helping us better understand the failure of political leadership in the decade that led to the Civil War. Contributors Spencer R. Crew Paul Finkelman Matthew Glassman Amy S. Greenberg Martin J. Hershock Michael F. Holt Brooks D. Simpson Jenny Wahl
Max Glonek, Jonathan Tuke, Lewis Mitchell, and Nigel Bean
Applied Network Science, Vol 4, Iss 1, Pp 1-18 (2019)
Community detection, Graph labelling, Random walk, Markov chain, Political networks, Applied mathematics. Quantitative methods, and T57-57.97
Abstract Graph labelling is a key activity of network science, with broad practical applications, and close relations to other network science tasks, such as community detection and clustering. While a large body of work exists on both unsupervised and supervised labelling algorithms, the class of random walk-based supervised algorithms requires further exploration, particularly given their relevance to social and political networks. This work refines and expands upon a new semi-supervised graph labelling method, the GLaSS method, that exactly calculates absorption probabilities for random walks on connected graphs. The method models graphs exactly as discrete-time Markov chains, treating labelled nodes as absorbing states. The method is applied to roll call voting data for 42 meetings of the United States House of Representatives and Senate, from 1935 to 2019. Analysis of the 84 resultant political networks demonstrates strong and consistent performance of GLaSS when estimating labels for unlabelled nodes in graphs, and reveals a significant trend of increasing partisanship within the United States Congress.
Thomas V Maher, Charles Seguin, Yongjun Zhang, and Andrew P Davis
PLoS ONE, Vol 15, Iss 3, p e0230104 (2020)
Medicine and Science
Congressional hearings are a venue in which social scientists present their views and analyses before lawmakers in the United States, however quantitative data on their representation has been lacking. We present new, publicly available, data on the rates at which anthropologists, economists, political scientists, psychologists, and sociologists appeared before United States congressional hearings from 1946 through 2016. We show that social scientists were present at some 10,347 hearings and testified 15,506 times. Economists testify before the US Congress far more often than other social scientists, and constitute a larger proportion of the social scientists testifying in industry and government positions. We find that social scientists' testimony is increasingly on behalf of think tanks; political scientists, in particular, have gained much more representation through think tanks. Sociology, and psychology's representation before Congress has declined considerably beginning in the 1980s. Anthropologists were the least represented. These findings show that academics are representing a more diverse set of organizations, but economists continue to be far more represented than other disciplines before the US Congress.
Franklin G. Mixon, Chandini Sankaran, and Kamal P. Upadhyaya
Economies, Vol 7, Iss 2, p 36 (2019)
political ideology, roll-call voting, public choice, public policy, United States Congress, Economics as a science, and HB71-74
This study extends the political science and political psychology literature on the political ideology of lawmakers by addressing the following question: How stable is a legislator’s political ideology over time? In doing so, we employ Nokken−Poole scores of legislators’ political ideology for members of the United States (U.S.) House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate who were elected prior to the 103rd Congress that began in early 1991 and who served consecutively through the 115th Congress, which ended in early 2019. Results from individual time-series estimations suggest that political ideology is unstable over time for a sizable portion of the members of both major political parties who serve in the U.S. Congress, while analysis of the pooled data suggests that, after accounting for inertia in political ideology and individual legislator effects, Republican legislators become more conservative over time. These results run somewhat counter to the finding in prior studies that the political ideologies of lawmakers and other political elites are stable over time.