Ayham Alomari, Ahmad Sami Al-Shamayleh, Norisma Idris, Aznul Qalid Md Sabri, Izzat Alsmadi, and Danah Omary
IEEE Access, Vol 11, Pp 112483-112501 (2023)
Abstractive summarization, novelty, warm-started models, deep learning, metrics, Electrical engineering. Electronics. Nuclear engineering, and TK1-9971
Abstractive summarization is distinguished by using novel phrases that are not found in the source text. However, most previous research ignores this feature in favour of enhancing syntactical similarity with the reference. To improve novelty aspects, we have used multiple warm-started models with varying encoder and decoder checkpoints and vocabulary. These models are then adapted to the paraphrasing task and the sampling decoding strategy to further boost the levels of novelty and quality. In addition, to avoid relying only on the syntactical similarity assessment, two additional abstractive summarization metrics are introduced: 1) NovScore: a new novelty metric that delivers a summary novelty score; and 2) NSSF: a new comprehensive metric that ensembles Novelty, Syntactic, Semantic, and Faithfulness features into a single score to simulate human assessment in providing a reliable evaluation. Finally, we compare our models to the state-of-the-art sequence-to-sequence models using the current and the proposed metrics. As a result, warm-starting, sampling, and paraphrasing improve novelty degrees by 2%, 5%, and 14%, respectively, while maintaining comparable scores on other metrics.
Rasheed Mohammad Nassr, Abdulaziz Aborujilah, Danah Ahmed Aldossary, and Alia Ahmed Abdullah Aldossary
IEEE Access, Vol 8, Pp 186939-186950 (2020)
COVID-19 epidemic, country lockdown, online learning, Malaysia, Electrical engineering. Electronics. Nuclear engineering, and TK1-9971
The COVID-19 pandemic has struck the world and forced countries to go into lockdown including education sector. Students have been staying in hostels or houses, unable to go to university campuses. This situation has left university administrators no choice, but to have an online learning channel. Malaysian universities in particular have gone through many challenges to bring their online learning system up and ready to resume education process. However, students have found themselves caught in this situation (pure online learning) with no plan or readiness. Literature reviews showed that students encountered some challenges that could not be easily resolved. This study explored the challenges encountered by students of a government-linked university. This university is one of the largest in Malaysia with over 10 campuses across the country. This study collected 284 valid answers. The findings show that respondents lacked full readiness in this situation physically, environmentally, and psychologically with some differences in perspectives according to their gender, age, and residing state. Respondents were concerned about the implications of lockdown on their performance. The findings of this study indicate that a sudden switch to a pure online alternative creates considerable challenges to students who have no plans to be physically apart from classes. The findings also indicate that the current blended learning process which uses online learning as a support mechanism for face-to-face learning has faced a considerable challenge to replace it, particularly with unprepared students.