Aejin Lee, McKensie L. Mason, Tao Lin, Shashi Bhushan Kumar, Devan Kowdley, Jacob H. Leung, Danah Muhanna, Yuan Sun, Joana Ortega-Anaya, Lianbo Yu, Julie Fitzgerald, A. Courtney DeVries, Randy J. Nelson, Zachary M. Weil, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Jon R. Parquette, and Ouliana Ziouzenkova
Pharmaceutics, Vol 14, Iss 81, p 81 (2022)
diabetes, leptin, nanofibers, taurine, Pharmacy and materia medica, and RS1-441
Diabetes poses a high risk for debilitating complications in neural tissues, regulating glucose uptake through insulin-dependent and predominantly insulin-independent pathways. Supramolecular nanostructures provide a flexible strategy for combinatorial regulation of glycemia. Here, we compare the effects of free insulin to insulin bound to positively charged nanofibers comprised of self-assembling amino acid compounds (AACs) with an antioxidant-modified side chain moiety (AAC2) in both in vitro and in vivo models of type 1 diabetes. Free AAC2, free human insulin (hINS) and AAC2-bound-human insulin (AAC2-hINS) were tested in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mouse model of type 1 diabetes. AAC2-hINS acted as a complex and exhibited different properties compared to free AAC2 or hINS. Mice treated with the AAC2-hINS complex were devoid of hypoglycemic episodes, had improved levels of insulin in circulation and in the brain, and increased expression of neurotransmitter taurine transporter, Slc6a6. Consequently, treatment with AAC2-hINS markedly advanced both physical and cognitive performance in mice with STZ-induced and genetic type 1 diabetes compared to treatments with free AAC2 or hINS. This study demonstrates that the flexible nanofiber AAC2 can serve as a therapeutic platform for the combinatorial treatment of diabetes and its complications.
Ruth Speidel, Emma Galarneau, Danah Elsayed, Shahdah Mahhouk, Joanne Filippelli, Tyler Colasante, and Tina Malti
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol 18, Iss 12180, p 12180 (2021)
refugee children, adverse life experiences, social–emotional development, mental health, internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and Medicine
Refugee children who experience severe pre-migratory adversity often show varying levels of mental health upon resettlement. Thus, it is critical to identify the factors that explain which refugee children experience more vs. less healthy outcomes. The present study assessed child social–emotional capacities (i.e., emotion regulation, sympathy, optimism, and trust) as potential moderators of associations between child, parental, and familial pre-migratory adversities and child mental health (i.e., internalizing and externalizing symptoms) upon resettlement. Participants were N = 123 five- to 12-year-old Syrian refugee children and their mothers living in Canada. Children and mothers reported their pre-migratory adverse life experiences, and mothers reported their children’s current social–emotional capacities, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing symptoms. Greater familial (i.e., the sum of children’s and their mother’s) pre-migratory adversity was associated with higher child internalizing and externalizing symptoms upon resettlement. Higher emotion regulation and optimism were associated with lower internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and higher sympathy was associated with lower externalizing symptoms. In contrast, higher trust was associated with higher internalizing symptoms. Finally, higher child optimism buffered against the positive association between familial pre-migratory adversity and child internalizing symptoms. In sum, select social–emotional capacities may serve as potential protective factors that support mental health and buffer against the deleterious effects of pre-migratory adversity in refugee children.
Shahnaz Hasan, Gokulakannan Kandasamy, Danah Alyahya, Asma Alonazi, Azfar Jamal, Radhakrishnan Unnikrishnan, Hariraja Muthusamy, and Amir Iqbal
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol 18, Iss 6702, p 6702 (2021)
strength, plyometric training, function performance, resisted sprint training, young football players, and Medicine
The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the short-term effects of resisted sprint and plyometric training on sprint performance together with lower limb physiological and functional performance in collegiate football players. Ninety collegiate football players participated in this three-arm, parallel group randomized controlled trial study. Participants were randomly divided into a control group and two experimental groups: resisted sprint training (RST) (n = 30), plyometric training (PT) (n = 30), and a control group (n = 30). Participants received their respective training program for six weeks on alternate days. The primary outcome measures were a knee extensor strength test (measured by an ISOMOVE dynamometer), a sprint test and a single leg triple hop test. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 weeks post-training. Participants, caregivers, and those assigning the outcomes were blinded to the group assignment. A mixed design analysis of variance was used to compare between groups, within-group and the interaction between time and group. A within-group analysis revealed a significant difference (p < 0.05) when compared to the baseline with the 6 weeks post-intervention scores for all the outcomes including STN (RST: d = 1.63; PT: d = 2.38; Control: d = 2.26), ST (RST: d = 1.21; PT: d = 1.36; Control: d = 0.38), and SLTHT (RST: d = 0.76; PT: d = 0.61; Control: d = 0.18). A sub-group analysis demonstrated an increase in strength in the plyometric training group (95% CI 14.73 to 15.09, p = 0.00), an increase in the single leg triple hop test in the resisted sprint training group (95% CI 516.41 to 538.4, p = 0.05), and the sprint test was also improved in both experimental groups (95% CI 8.54 to 8.82, p = 0.00). Our findings suggest that, during a short-term training period, RST or PT training are equally capable of enhancing the neuromechanical capacities of collegiate football players. No adverse events were reported by the participants.
Aliyah Almomen, Maria Arafah, Monira Alwhaibi, Norah Alsaigh, Abdullah Alshememry, Nasser B. Alsaleh, Danah Alrabeeah, Khalid Al Saleh, Aws Alshamsan, and Musaed Alkholief
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol 29, Iss 6, Pp 609-615 (2021)
Biomarkers, Breast cancer, Ceramide expression, Molecular subtypes, Saudi Arabia, Therapeutics. Pharmacology, and RM1-950
Background/Introduction: Despite advances in the diagnosis and management of breast cancer (BC), it is still associated with high mortality rates. New biomarkers are being developed for the diagnosis, treatment, and prediction of responses of BC. Ceramide (CER), a bioactive sphingolipid, has emerged recently as a useful diagnostic tool in several types of tumors. In this study, we evaluated CER expression in invasive BC and assessed its relation to the molecular subtypes of BC. Materials and methods: The clinical data and histopathological slides of 50 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma were retrieved and reviewed. The cases were then stained with a mouse monoclonal anti-ceramide antibody. Pearson correlation was used to assess the correlation between CER percentage and intensity and other clinical and pathological variables. Results: CER expression showed a direct relationship with estrogen and progesterone receptors Allred scores. However, it showed an inverse relation with tumor grade, HER2/neu status and Ki-67 index. Conclusions: CER expression is likely to be associated with luminal BC molecular subtypes. However, more research is needed to confirm these results and to explore its relation to the different clinical outcomes, including response to treatment and prognosis.
As cities adopt mandates to protect, maintain and restore urban biodiversity, the need for urban ecology studies grows. Species-specific information on the effects of urbanization is often a limiting factor in designing and implementing effective biodiversity strategies. In suburban and exurban areas, amphibians play an important social-ecological role between people and their environment and contribute to ecosystem health. Amphibians are vulnerable to threats and imbalances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment due to a biphasic lifestyle, making them excellent indicators of local environmental health. We developed a citizen science program to systematically monitor amphibians in a large city in Alberta, Canada, where 90% of pre-settlement wetlands have been removed and human activities continue to degrade, alter, and/or fragment remaining amphibian habitats. We demonstrate successes and challenges of using publicly collected data in biodiversity monitoring. Through amphibian monitoring, we show how a citizen science program improved ecological knowledge, engaged the public in urban biodiversity monitoring and improved urban design and planning for biodiversity. We outline lessons learned to inform citizen science program design, including the importance of early engagement of decision makers, quality control assessment, assessing tensions in program design for data and public engagement goals, and incorporating conservation messaging into programming.
Danah Hourani, Simone Darling, Eloise Cameron, James Dromey, Louise Crossley, Sanji Kanagalingam, Frank Muscara, Amanda Gwee, Grace Gell, Harriet Hiscock, and Vicki Anderson
Frontiers in Digital Health, Vol 3 (2021)
digital health (eHealth), evidence-based & research methodology, pediatrics - children, health system - organization and administration, mobile application (app), Medicine, Public aspects of medicine, RA1-1270, Electronic computers. Computer science, and QA75.5-76.95
Embedding digital technologies in healthcare has the potential to streamline and personalize medical care. However, healthcare systems are often fragmented, and therefore achieving a truly integrated digital health program can be challenging. To promote a streamlined, evidence-based approach to implementing digital health solutions in a healthcare system, the Murdoch Children's Research Institute (MCRI) established the Digital Health Translation and Implementation Program (DHTI) bringing together clinicians, researchers and digital health experts. From the program commencement, frontline clinical innovators have collaborated with DHTI team members to develop and implement digital solutions to address pain-points in the healthcare system. Throughout this program, important lessons have been learnt relating to the development, evaluation and implementation of digital solutions in the healthcare system. This paper explores these lessons and makes recommendations for the successful implementation of digital health solutions in healthcare systems under five main categories: (1) design and usability, (2) stakeholder engagement and uptake, (3) project management and resourcing, (4) process and implementation, and (5) evaluation. Recommendations suggested here are designed to support future healthcare-based digital health programs to maximize the impact digital solutions can have on the healthcare system and patients.
Juman Rezqalla, Mariam Alshatti, Amna Ibraheem, Danah Omar, Al-Failakawi Houda, Shamayel AlHaqqan, Sarah AlGhurair, and Saeed Akhtar
Journal of Infection and Public Health, Vol 14, Iss 5, Pp 661-667 (2021)
Human papillomavirus, Female schoolteachers, Unawareness, HPV vaccine, HPV vaccine uptake, HPV transmission routes, Infectious and parasitic diseases, RC109-216, Public aspects of medicine, and RA1-1270
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract. This cross-sectional study among female schoolteachers assessed the prevalence of i) unawareness of HPV infection’s causal role in cervical cancer; ii) unawareness of HPV vaccine availability and iii) examined the sociodemographic variables associated both the outcome variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among female schoolteachers employed in public and private sectors schools in Kuwait using a structured questionnaire for data collection. Prevalence of each of the outcome variables was computed. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate independent predictors of two dependent variables. Results: A total 1341 female schoolteachers were enrolled. Of the participants, 60% were unaware of HPV causal role in cervical cancer and 88% were unaware of HPV vaccine availability. Among those who were aware of HPV vaccine availability, 83.8% were unvaccinated. Multivariable logistic regression (MLR) model showed that 20–29 years old participants or those with low family income (< 500 KD/month) were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to be unaware of HPV causal role in cervical cancer. Moreover, participants with family/ personal history of cervical cancer were significantly (p < 0.05) less likely to be unaware of HPV role in causation of cervical cancer. A separate MLR model revealed that the participants were significantly more likely to be unaware of HPV vaccine availability if they were Kuwaiti nationals or non-Kuwaiti Arabs (p < 0.05), employed in public schools (p = 0.003) or less likely to be unaware if they had personal or family history of cervical cancer (p < 0.001). Conclusion: High prevalences of unawareness of causal role of HPV in cervical cancer and unawareness of HPV vaccine availability were recorded. Targeted education among identified sociodemographic groups with high levels of unawareness is warranted. If undertaken, future studies may evaluate the impact of recommended efforts.
Abdulla Alfraij, Abdulrahman A. Bin Alamir, Abdulnasir M. Al-Otaibi, Danah Alsharrah, Abdulrahman Aldaithan, Ahmed M. Kamel, Muna Almutairi, Salman Alshammari, Mohammed Almazyad, Jara Mia Macarambon, and Mohammad Alghounaim
Journal of Infection and Public Health, Vol 14, Iss 2, Pp 193-200 (2021)
Children, Intensive care, SARS-CoV-2, Mortality, Infectious and parasitic diseases, RC109-216, Public aspects of medicine, and RA1-1270
Background: Characteristics of critical Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children is not well understood. This study described the clinical characteristics of children admitted to intensive care units (ICU) and explored factors associated with the need for invasive ventilation or mortality. Methods: A multicenter, retrospective, cohort study was conducted over eight medical centers, including all patients younger than 18 years of age and admitted to the ICU due to a direct consequence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients who were admitted to the ICU for any alternate reason and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by screening test, and patients who were admitted due to multi-inflammatory syndrome in children, were excluded. Demographic, laboratory, imaging, and clinical data were collected. Descriptive statistics were used to compare survivors and non-survivors. Fine and Gray’s hazard model was used to estimate the association between clinical variables and ICU death. Results: During the study period, 25 pediatric COVID-19 patients received care in the ICUs. The median age was 2.78 years (IQR 0.21–8.51), and 60% were male. Only three patients were reported to be previously healthy at admission. Nine (36%) patients required invasive mechanical ventilation, including two were on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Four (16%) patients died during ICU care. In univariate analysis, the presence of comorbidity (HR 0.0001; 95%CI 0.00001–0.00016), platelets count (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.98–0.99), elevated procalcitonin (HR 1.05; 95%CI 1.016–1.09), and circulatory compromise (HR 16.34; 95%CI 1.99–134.35), all at the time of ICU admission, were associated with in-ICU mortality. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that children admitted to the ICU with SARS-CoV-2 infection, generally, have a favorable outcome. Low platelets count, elevated procalcitonin, presence of comorbidity, and shock at the time of ICU admission were associated with death. This study may shed more light on the disease dynamics of critical pediatric COVID-19.
Othman Al Musaimi, Danah Al Shaer, Fernando Albericio, and Beatriz G. de la Torre
Pharmaceuticals, Vol 14, Iss 145, p 145 (2021)
belantamab mafodotin-blmf, 64Cu-DOTATATE, drugs, FDA, 68Ga-PSMA-11, lumasiran, Medicine, Pharmacy and materia medica, and RS1-441
2020 has been an extremely difficult and challenging year as a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and one in which most efforts have been channeled into tackling the global health crisis. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved 53 new drug entities, six of which fall in the peptides and oligonucleotides (TIDES) category. The number of authorizations for these kinds of drugs has been similar to that of previous years, thereby reflecting the consolidation of the TIDES market. Here, the TIDES approved in 2020 are analyzed in terms of chemical structure, medical target, mode of action, and adverse effects.
Alfraij, Abdulla, Bin Alamir, Abdulrahman A., Al-Otaibi, Abdulnasir M., Alsharrah, Danah, Aldaithan, Abdulrahman, Kamel, Ahmed M., Almutairi, Muna, Alshammari, Salman, Almazyad, Mohammed, Macarambon, Jara Mia, and Alghounaim, Mohammad
Journal of infection and public health. 14(2):193-200
Noise and Health, Vol 23, Iss 110, Pp 67-74 (2021)
age of acquisition, bilingualism, english as a second language, perception of speech in noise, signal-to-noise ratio, snr loss, Otorhinolaryngology, RF1-547, Industrial medicine. Industrial hygiene, and RC963-969
Background: Previous studies have highlighted that bilingual listeners have a deficit in speech perception in their second language compared with monolingual listeners in noisy listening environments. This deficit may give rise to educational and occupational implications for bilingual speakers who are studying or working in non-native language environments in poor acoustic conditions. Objectives: To compare the speech perception performance of monolingual English speakers and English as a second language (ESL) bilinguals within environments with various levels of background noise and to examine whether bilinguals with an early age of second language acquisition would perform better than those with a late age of acquisition. Study sample: Two groups of adult listeners with normal hearing participated: monolingual British English listeners (N = 15) and bilingual Arabic listeners for whom English was their second language and who were proficient in English (N = 15). The quick speech-in-noise (QuickSIN) test was used to assess signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss and SNR-50 for both groups. Results: The QuickSIN test results indicated that bilingual Arabic listeners with normal hearing displayed a mild SNR loss comparable to that observed for a person with hearing loss, indicating a higher SNR needed for this population to achieve a comparable level of comprehension to their monolingual English peers. Conclusion: Results highlight the importance of measuring SNR loss to obtain accurate diagnosis and potential rehabilitative information that is not available from audiogram studies.
Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq, Shahamah Jomah, Reem Hasan, Danah Al-Baroudi, Mai Alharbi, Sarah Alsubaie, Maryam Hassan Buhamad, Bdoor Alyahya, and Mohammed Jaber Al-Yamani
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol 27, Iss 12, Pp 3342-3347 (2020)
Polycystic ovary syndrome, Binge eating disorder, Health related quality of life, Depression disorder, Riyadh, Biology (General), and QH301-705.5
Background & objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinal disorder, and the greatest cause of infertility in women. Despite availability of individual data on impact of multiple endocrinal, reproductive and even metabolic factors in PCOS individuals, the data on the co-existence of BED and depression in PCOS patients with its relationship on the quality of life in Saudi Arabian females is not found. Hence this study is aimed to elucidate the implication of PCOS on eating behaviour, induction of depression and general health quality in Saudi Arabian population of Riyadh. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in multiple health facilities of Riyadh from January to March 2019. The study samples (494) were recruited by convenience sampling and administered validated questionnaire by trained research participants. The data obtained was analysed by binary logistic regression using SPSS-IBM 25. Results: Of the total 494 women participated in the study, 23.48% (116) were PCOS individuals. The odds of developing abnormal health related quality of (HRQ) in patients with PCOS was significantly (P = 0.000, OR = 3.472) high when compared to non-PCOS participants. The odds of showing high binge eating disorder (BED, P = 0.007, OR = 2.856) and depression (P = 0.000, OR = 2.497) scores in PCOS participants were significantly more than patients who were not having PCOS. Out of the three parameters studied, abnormal health related quality of life possessed a higher influence of PCOS compared to depression and abnormal eating behavior. Interpretation & conclusion: In conclusion, the present study shows that women with PCOS are at a significant risk for depressive disorders, disorganized eating behavior and impaired quality of life. Therefore, necessary care and screening is required to minimize the impact of PCOS on already burdened individuals.