Geografiska Annaler Series B: Human Geography. Sep2011, Vol. 93 Issue 3, p193-221. 29p.
ELECTRIC power production, ELECTRIC power, ELECTRICITY, RENEWABLE energy sources, and RURAL electrification
ABSTRACT. The European Union anticipates alleviating future energy shortages and fulfilling renewable energy mandates by importing 'green' electricity from Africa. Historical precedent and environmental consequences have largely been ignored. This article presents an environmental history of African electricity generation at a continental scale, tracing its parallel developments with colonialism, as well as its pursuit in the independence eras of development assistance and neoliberalism. Initially electricity served European interests. Independent governments' development policies involved electrification primarily for industrial development; in North Africa, universal access was also a priority. Recurrent themes and cycles of environmental constraint, environmental disruption, and displacement of consequences from one ecosystem to another are addressed. Highlighted are inter-relationships among electricity generation, fuel supplies, ecosystems, and water cycles. Late twentieth century technologies and globalized markets re-valued African rivers and deserts as potential energy sources. Mega-engineering projects were rejuvenated or proposed. Rural electrification was labelled uneconomic social welfare unrelated to economic development policies of selling power through national, regional, continental and intercontinental interconnections. Historical analysis suggests new areas of research for sustainable development and alternatives to declensionist narratives. Decentralized, small-scale plants offer models of electricity supply for industrial and domestic needs, while investment in rural electrification produced measureable economic benefit at national levels. Will the EU renewable energy mandate simply displace Europe's environmental problems to Africa? Can Africa afford another water-intensive export commodity? Will the New African Century follow well-established patterns of exploitation, or take new, sustainable directions? [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Delarue, Erik, Voorspools, Kris, and D'haeseleer, William
Journal of Energy Engineering. Jun2008, Vol. 134 Issue 2, p40-46. 7p. 2 Charts, 7 Graphs.
EMISSIONS trading, GREENHOUSE gas mitigation, FUEL switching, ELECTRICITY, ELECTRIC power, and ELECTRIC power production
The European Union has implemented the European Union emission trading scheme (EU ETS) as an instrument to facilitate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission abatement stipulated in the Kyoto protocol. Empirical data show that in the early stages of the EU ETS, the value of a ton of CO2 has already led to emission abatement through switching from coal to gas in the European electric power sector. In the second part of this paper, an electricity generation simulation model is used to perform simulations on the switching behavior in both the first and the second trading periods of the EU ETS. In 2005, the reduction in GHG emissions in the electric power sector due to EU ETS is estimated close to 88 Mton. For the second trading period, a European Union allowance (EUA) price dependent GHG reduction curve has been determined. The obtained switching potential turns out to be significant, up to 300 Mton/year, at sufficiently high EUA prices. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Member states of the European Union have similar electricity market architectures, but these markets are weakly integrated. There is great potential in improving the links among member state submarkets, making better use of existing grid infrastructure. While investments in grid bottlenecks are necessary, existing regulation is inadequate to ensure and coordinate cross-border transmission investments. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Caucasian Review of International Affairs; Apr2010, Vol. 4 Issue 2, p145-158, 14p
POWER resources, ELECTRIC power, ENVIRONMENTAL protection, ELECTRICITY, GAS companies, and SUPRANATIONALISM
The central aim of this paper is to present an intergovernmentalist evaluation of the prospects for the European Union (EU) member states to pursue a common energy security policy at the supranational level. Particularly, the analysis seeks to address the demands for a common EU stance concerning the issue of energy supply security. Thus, the paper leaves aside other cornerstones of a common EU energy policy, namely the issues of environmental protection and liberalization of the electricity and gas markets. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]