electricity, off -grid photovoltaic systems, non-renewable energy, sustainability, environmental, Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General), and TA1-2040
Assess the sustainability of electricity provision for rural families through off-grid Photovoltaic Systems (PVS) in Bolivia during the last 10 years, is the essential core of this research. The sustainability analysis is considered under a multidimensional approach: documental analysis complemented by a field research and semi-structured interviews with local experts. In the Bolivian case more than 36 thousand PVS have been installed in the last 10 years under different schemes, but more than 90% of these, are out of operation, shown the absence of sustainability approach in these interventions. For this and considering the international experience, is sketched a proposal under an integrality approach. The proposal contemplates substantial modifications in the way of granting the SFV to the families, their faculties as well as the institutional roles; a tariffed service has been suggested as it happens throughout an off-network system.
The paper analyses the generation of electricity from biomass sources in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) between 2003 and 2012. The electrification rate in SSA was 32% as compared to 92, 70 and 94% in China and East Asia, South Asia and Latin America, respectively. This is a serious issue that affects development. An estimated 620 million people in SSA have no access to electricity. Yet SSA abounds in biomass resources, it produces less than 1% of its electricity from biomass. The structure of electricity production in SSA shows that generation mix is dominated by hydropower (23%) and fossil fuels (73.3%). There has been a significant temporal variation in the quantum of electricity produced from biomass in SSA between 2003 and 2012. The trend has been rather static. Only 13 countries in SSA produce electricity from biomass sources. However, there are significant spatial variations with Eastern and Southern Africa producing more electricity from biomass sources than Western Africa.