Computer aided design (CAD) systems, or more generally interactive software, are today being developed for various application areas like VLSI-design, mechanical structure design, avionics design, cartographic design, architectual design, office automation, publishing, etc. Such tools are becoming more and more important in order to be productive and to be able to design quality products. One important part of CAD-software development is the man-machine interface (MMI) design.
Johan H. Aas, Karsten Brathen, Erik Nordo, and Ole Ø. Ørpen
Modeling, Identification and Control, Vol 10, Iss 1, Pp 53-63 (1989)
Man-machine systems, human factors, underseas systems, prototyping, system analysis, guidance systems, Electronic computers. Computer science, and QA75.5-76.95
Important man-machine interface (MMI) issues concerning a submarine command and weapon control system (CWCS) such as crew organization, automation level and decision support are discussed in this paper. Generic submarine CWCS functions and operating conditions are outlined. Detailed, dynamic and real-time prototypes were used to support the MMI design. The prototypes are described and experience with detailed prototyping is discussed. Some of the main interaction principles are summarized and a restricted example of the resulting design is given. Our design experience and current work have been used to outline future perspectives of MMI design in naval CWCSs. The need for both formal and experimental approaches is emphasized.
Australasian Journal of Information Systems, Vol 2, Iss 2 (1995)
evolutionary prototyping, Information technology, T58.5-58.64, Electronic computers. Computer science, and QA75.5-76.95
The failure of many Information Systems (IS) designed for use by managers may be due to the fact that traditional IS methodologies were used in their development. In this paper we describe an organisation's efforts, over a period of four years, to develop an IS for use by senior management and show how traditional methodologies have impeded the involvement of the intended users of the system from the development process resulting in poor specification of user requirements and inflexible systems. From this experience we verify the superiority of an evolutionary prototyping methodology for the development of these types of systems.
Scientific Programming, Vol 5, Iss 4, Pp 279-300 (1996)
Computer software and QA76.75-76.765
To naturally and conveniently express numerical algorithms, considerable expressive power is needed in the languages in which they are implemented. The language Matlab is widely used by numerical analysts for this reason. Expressiveness or ease-of-use can also result in a loss of efficiency, as is the case with Matlab. In particular, because numerical analysts are highly interested in the performance of their algorithms, prototypes are still often implemented in languages such as Fortran. In this article we describe a language design that is intended to both provide expressiveness for numerical computation, and at the same time provide performance guarantees. In our language, EQ, we attempt to include both syntactic and semantic features that correspond closely to the programmer's model of the problem, including unordered equations, large-granularity state transitions, and matrix notation. The resulting language does not fit into standard language categories such as functional or imperative but has features of both paradigms. We also introduce the notion of language dependability, which is the idea that a language should guarantee that certain program transformations are performed by all implementations. We first describe the interesting features of EQ, and then present three examples of algorithms written using it. We also provide encouraging performance results from an initial implementation of our language.
Concurrent Engineering, Integrated Product Development, Prototyping, Quality Function Deployment, Design for Manufacturing, Case histories and web-based tutorial, Manufactures, and TS1-2301
This paper provides a comprehensive insight into current trends and developments in Concurrent Engineering for integrated development of products and processes with the goal of completing the entire cycle in a shorter time, at lower overall cost and with fewer engineering design changes after product release. The evolution and definition of Concurrent Engineering are addressed first, followed by a concise review of the following elements of the concurrent engineering approach to product development: Concept Development: The Front-End Process, identifying Customer Needs and Quality Function Deployment, Establishing Product Specifications, Concept Selection, Product Architecture, Design for Manufacturing, Effective Rapid Prototyping, and The Economics of Product Development. An outline of a computer-based tutorial developed by the authors and other graduate students funded by NASA ( accessible via the world-wide-web ). is provided in this paper. A brief discussion of teamwork for successful concurrent engineering is included, t'ase histories of concurrent engineering implementation at North American and European companies are outlined with references to textbooks authored by Professor Menon and other writers. A comprehensive bibliography on concurrent engineering is included in the paper.
A realidade virtual é um ambiente gerado pelo computador em que o usuário tem disponibilidade de controles tridimensionais de maneira altamente interativa, podendo manipular e explorar dados em tempo real. A realidade virtual pode ser aplicada em diversos setores da indústria, desde o planejamento de fábricas, simulação da produção, auxílio na divulgação de produtos, treinamento de funcionários, validação de protótipos. Este artigo visa mostrar a flexibilidade da utilização da realidade virtual dentro das indústrias e dos centros de pesquisas, focando principalmente as áreas relacionadas a manufatura, desenvolvimento de produto e treinamento.Virtual reality is a computer-generated environment with highly interactive three-dimensional controls which allow the user to manipulate and examine data in real time. Virtual reality can be applied in a number of industry sectors, including factory planning, product simulation, product popularization, employee training and prototype validation. This article aims to show the flexibility of virtual reality in industry and in research centers, focussing mainly on areas related to manufacturing, product development and training.
Frédéric Reymond, Hye Jin Lee, Joël S. Rossier, Laure Tomaszewski, Rosaria Ferrigno, Carlos M. Pereira, and Hubert H. Girault
CHIMIA, Vol 53, Iss 3 (1999)
Chemistry and QD1-999
This review presents some recent developments in the field of electroanalytical sensors. We first explain the working principle of electrochemistry at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES), illustrated by the example of copper transferring through a water/1,2-dichloroethane interface when the ionophore 1,4,7,10-tetrathiacyclododecane is present in the organic phase. The obtained results show that assisted ion-transfer reactions take place with both CUI and CUII, but that the interfacial process is complicated by the fact that CUI disproportionates in water and that CUII can be reduced in the organic phase.Based on the same experimental methodology, a new type of amperometric detector for non-redox ions has been developed using a composite polymer membrane supporting a gelified organic phase that can incorporate an ionophore such as valinomycin. We report here the use of a (o-nitrophenyloctylether)-(poy(vinyl chloride) (NPOE-PVC) gel micro-interface as a detector for cations and anions in ion-exchange chromatography. The main advantage of this approach is that selectivity and sensitivity can be tailored by the choice of the ionophore and by the polarisation potential.This ion detector has also been incorporated in a miniaturised total-analysis system (?-TAS) fabricated in a polymer sheet by UV-laser photoablation. This microfabrication technique is used for the prototyping of a disposable capillary-electrophoresis microsystem comprising on-chip injector, separation column and electrochemical detector. This system is further used with built-in carbon-ink electrodes for the detection of electroactive species. These microsystems are now under development for immuno-sensor applications.
The H. Weidmann AG has set up a unique injection-moulding tool for replication of optical and nonoptical microstructures down to a sub-?m scale. Our approach simplifies the initial tooling and, thus, substantially lowers the cost threshold for feasibility studies and testing of injection-moulded microstructures. Two case studies, with micro-pipettes and a micro-spectrometer, respectively, show the usefulness of this new process technology. The service for polymer-sample prototyping is available on a commercial basis at reasonable costs and turn-around times.