MIS Quarterly. Sept, 1983, Vol. 9 Issue 3, p189. chart
Applications Programming, Backlog, Applications Backlog, Prototype, Methods, Information Systems, System Design, and Models
A prototyping development method is presented here which has the potential to reduce the growing application development backlog. Prior research and our findings indicate that a prototyping process can assist in the efficient development of application systems by breaking a complex problem into several comprehensive parts. A state-transition model of the IS development process is presented and discussed. A two-prototype method is explained in the context of this model. Two projects are described which are typical of development efforts made by end users in a microcomputer environment and IS specialists in a mainframe environement. (Reprinted by Permission of Publisher.)
Rapid prototyping is possible in computer controlled ink jet printing of hybrid circuits. Other advantages of this kind of printing are also analyzed. Development of the ink jet printer is discussed. This printing is feasible for printing well defined conductor lines. Spray control parameters of the printer are analytically expressed. A block diagram of the ink jet printing system is included. Photographs show line formation. Graphs show the effect of substrate speed and frequency on line widths and thickness of silver films.
Utilization of porcelain enameled metal substrate (PEMS) technology requires multiple rounds of prototyping. Materials capabilities are analyzed for PEMS. Design guidelines help in utilization of PEMS. Several guidelines are given. A table lists metal thicknesses. A diagram indicates dimensional adjustments required.
Software, Process Control, Real-Time System, Software Engineering, Application Development Software, Programming, Prototype, Requirements Analysis, and System Development
Large-scale software requires effective management for production. Such large-scale software consists of application software, a utility subsystem, and an operating system. Individual software factories require levels of abstraction in a design process which uses prototyping, reusing, and program generating systems. The first level is the requirements level which defines the external devices with which the software communicates. A capsulated form of a requirements description is shown. The data-function or design level is the transition, the definition of a user's needs and the establishment of the model. Program models are defined and implemented in the program level. Prototyping is done throughout the entire process for the first operational versions of software interfaces. Productivity and reliability are the most crucial factors in management of a software factory. In addition to the encapsulated format examples, numerous block diagrams illustrate software production and the rolling mill software production example.
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering. May 1984, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p290
Prototype, Specifications, Performance Specifications, Software Engineering, Program Development Techniques, and Comparative Study
There has been much discussion on the relative merits of the specification-driven approach to software development versus the prototyping approach. An experiment has been conducted to give some basis for comparison of the two approaches. Seven software teams developed the same application software product. Three used the prototyping approach, four the specifying approach. Results indicate that prototyping required less effort and less code for equivalent performance. Prototyped products were easier to learn and use but rated lower on functionality and robustness. Specified products were easier to integrate.
Ramamoorthy, C.V., Prakash, A., Tsai, W.T., and Usuda, Y.
Computer. Oct 1984, Vol. 17 Issue 10, p191. chart
Software Engineering, Software Design, System Development, Requirements Analysis, Specifications, Methods, Software Maintenance, Software Metrics, and Software Quality
Software engineering seeks to devise techniques for software development. Software systems go through two principal phases: development, and operations and maintenance. The conventional design-scheme requires that a large amount of time be spent developing specifications. Alternative schemes, include rapid prototyping, the very high level language approach, and the reusability approach. The design phase includes the decomposition of the requirement specification into certain basic elements and partitioning the set of decomposed elements into modules. Current design methodologies include functional decomposition, the data-flow design, and the data-structure design. Software maintenance can be divided into three categories: perfective, adaptive, and corrective maintenance. Software quality assurance aims to optimize reliability, reusability, and efficiency. Tables, graphs, and diagrams illustrate many of the features of software engineering.
Programming, Programming Language, Software Engineering, Methods, and I/O Management
Responding to a letter from Robert Baber (Computer, June 1985, p. 112), a reader disagrees with the conclusion that I-O is a conceptual block which hampers software development and argues instead that it is the central concept of intelligible programs. Current programming languages are certainly inadequate, in that they confuse design with implementation. These separate concerns should be dealt with in separate languages, and separate prototyping notions for designer and user should be added. Thus interprocess communication is a vital concept, of which I-O is the simplest expression.
Computer Design. Dec 1985, Vol. 24 Issue 17, p34. chart
Prototype, Design, Computer-Aided Design, and Boards/Cards
Building a prototype board is the last stage in the design process. The design for a board can be sent to an independent shop or it can be fabricated in-house. A tape is usually produced by CAD systems. Wire wrapping is the oldest approach to board prototyping. New approaches are represented by a liquid-chemistry process or a milling process.
Computer aided design (CAD) systems, or more generally interactive software, are today being developed for various application areas like VLSI-design, mechanical structure design, avionics design, cartographic design, architectual design, office automation, publishing, etc. Such tools are becoming more and more important in order to be productive and to be able to design quality products. One important part of CAD-software development is the man-machine interface (MMI) design.
Computer Design. Jan 1, 1987, Vol. 26 Issue 1, p49, 10 p. graph (Percentage rise in software-attributable system life-cycle costs 1955-85.)
Computer-Aided Software Engineering, Systems, Functional Capabilities, Applications, Outlook, Market, Hardware Vendors, Trends, Programming, Applications Backlog, Performance, Evaluation, and ADA
Software is 80 percent of new systems development cost, software maintenance costs are even greater, there is a 30 month software development backlog, and the annual need for programmers is over twice this year's 55,000 computer science graduates and getting worse. Consequently, there will be a $1 billion market for computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools by 1990. CASE tools are either non-language-specific or language-specific, most commonly Ada because of federal demand, and provide modular development in analysis, design, prototyping, coding, testing, integration, and maintenance. Several CASE systems are described in detail.