International Journal of the Sociology of Language. 1987, Vol. 1987 Issue 64, p71-80. 10p.
Prayer, READING, Frisian language, Bible, and Liturgics
This article discusses the use of the Frisian language in church services in the Netherlands. After the Reformation, Dutch became the exclusive language for liturgical use in homes, schools and church. Only Mennonite lay preachers made some use of Frisian in sermon. The change in favor of Frisian for the religious domain at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century can be characterized as a progression from individual activity to group activities. The individual activities were the various attempts to translate the Hymnal and the Bible into Frisian. Group activism started with the founding of the Christian Frisian Society. Another indication of change can be obtained at language use in prayer. Protestant churches emphasize spontaneous, personal prayer. Praying in Frisian occurs more frequently among younger people, though it does not indicate why the youngsters prefer Frisian in prayer. Meanwhile, an essential part of religious practice in the state was Bible-reading after meals. Especially those belonging to the stricter denominations engaged in Bible reading three times a day. Due to the influence of the Christian Frisian Society, the Bible was translated into Frisian. It was published in 1943 and a second ecumenical translation into Frisian followed in 1978.
Metaphor & the Social World. 2017, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p66-86. 21p.
Metaphor, God in Islam, Attributes of God, Muslims, Metaphor in the Bible, and Religion
This article describes a small-scale study in which Dutch Muslim teenagers were interviewed in order to establish how they use metaphors when they talk about their faith and how these metaphors compare with biblical metaphor. According to Achtemeier (1992), God has revealed Himself in the Bible by means of five principal metaphors, namely God as a KING, MASTER, JUDGE, FATHER and HUSBAND. The study investigated whether Dutch Muslim teenagers found these metaphors suitable as descriptions of Allah. The results indicate that only those metaphors that also occur in the Quran were considered suitable. The participants felt uncomfortable about the Christian metaphors of the FATHER and HUSBAND based on the notion that these are too 'earthly' to be appropriate descriptions of Allah. While many of their spontaneously produced metaphorical expressions apply equally to Christianity and Islam, one of Christianity's most fundamental and familiar metaphors - GOD IS A FATHER - was found to be categorically unacceptable. The results suggest that the sacred texts still play a central role in young people's understanding of the divine and that Dutch Muslims may perceive their faith in different terms from Dutch Christians even when having grown up in a Christian society and attended Christian schools. One important follow-up question that arises is whether discussing alternative metaphorical frameworks may help young believers become more self-aware as well as more tolerant towards other interpretations of faith. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]