Edington, Jacqueline, Geekie, Moira, Carter, Robin, Benfield, Lisa, Fisher, Karen, Ball, Madeleine, and Mann, Jim
British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition). 2/7/1987, Vol. 294 Issue 6568, p333-336. 4p. 1 Diagram, 4 Charts.
LOW-fat diet and BLOOD cholesterol
Examines the effect of dietary cholesterol on plasma cholesterol concentration in subjects following low fat diet in Great Britain. Ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids; Comparison of the cholesterol concentration among subjects; Importance of dietary cholesterol for the reduction of saturated fats.
Scull, Christopher, Ager, Barry, Bourn, Robert, Cameron, Esther, Clogg, P. W., Creighton, John, Edwards, Glynis, Gelling, Margaret, Gilmour, Brian, Harman, Mary, Henry, Pippa, Holgate, Robin, Huntley, Jacqueline P., Johnson, Paul, Linford, Neil, Marlow, C. A., Mortimer, Catherine, Mudd, Andrew, Odenstedt, Bengt, and Page, R. I.
Archaeological Journal; 1992, Vol. 149, p124-281, 158p, 13 Black and White Photographs, 66 Diagrams, 12 Charts, 2 Graphs, 2 Maps
Geophysical survey and excavation have demonstrated that iron age settlement features and early Anglo-Saxon burials discovered during road construction in 1983 were part o[ an extensive multi-period site, now a Scheduled Ancient Monument. This paper presents the results of the archaeological investigations. The bulk of the report is concerned with the early Anglo-Saxon burials, which included a grave containing a balance, weights and runic inscription. The evidence for late mesolithic, neolithic -- early bronze age, iron age and post-medieval activity is also discussed, and the site is considered in its regional and wider context. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Vallacher, Robin R., Wegner, Daniel M., McMahan, Susan C., Cotter, Jacqueline, and Larsen, Kathleen A.
Social Cognition; Fall 1992, Vol. 10 Issue: 3 p335-355, 21p
This study tested the performance optimality hypothesis of action identification theory in the context of self-presentation. Optimal performance is said to occur when a personally easy action is identified in relatively high level terms (i.e., the action's goals and likely effects) or a personally difficult action is identified in relatively low level terms (i.e., the action's mechanical details). To test this idea with respect to self-presentation, subjects were asked to describe themselves to either a difficult-to-impress or an easy-to-impress stranger in advance of a get-acquainted conversation with him or her. Subjects were induced to think about the self-description task in either high level terms (e.g., demonstrating their personality) or low level terms (e.g., smiling when appropriate). Support for the optimality hypothesis was obtained in subjects' self-reports of their self-presentation effectiveness and in observers' evaluations of subjects. Discussion centered on the manifestation of self-presentation nonoptimality in the early stages of relationship formation.
Whittemore, Alice S., Harris, Robin, Itnyre, Jacqueline, Halpern, Jerry, and Group, the Collaborative Ovarian Cancer
American Journal of Epidemiology; November 1992, Vol. 136 Issue: 10 p1175-1175, 1p
Data from 12 US case-control studies of ovarian cancer, conducted during the period 1956–1986 and representing some 3, 000 cases and 10,000 controls, were pooled and reanalyzed. Separate analyses were conducted for four subgroups of the pooled data: invasive epithelial ovarian cancers in white women; epithelial ovarian cancers of low malignant potential in white women, epithelial ovarian cancers in black women, and nonepithelial ovarian cancers. This paper gives a brief description of the participating studies and describes the methods used in the collaborative analysis. Am J Epidemiol1992; 136: 1175–83
Whittmore, Alice S., Harris, Robin, Itnyre, Jacqueline, and Group, the Collaborative Ovarian Cancer
American Journal of Epidemiology; November 1992, Vol. 136 Issue: 10 p1184-1184, 1p
Data collected from 2,197 white ovarian cancer patients and 8,893 white controls in 12 US case-control studies conducted in the period 1956–1986 were used to evaluate the relation of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer to reproductive and menstrual characteristics, exogenous estrogen use, and prior pelvic surgeries. Clear trends of decreasing risk were evident with increasing number of pregnancies (regardless of outcome) and increasing duration of breast feeding and oral contraceptive use. Ovarian dysfunction leading to both infertility and malignancy is an unlikely explanation for these trends for several reasons: 1) The trends were evident even among the highly parous; 2) risk among nulliparous women did not vary by marital status or gravidity; and 3) risk among ever-married women showed little relation to length of longest pregnancy attempt or history of clinically diagnosed infertility. Risk was increased among women who had used fertility drugs and among women with long total duration of premenopausal sexual activity without birth control; these associations were particularly strong among the nulligravid. No consistent trends in risk were seen with age at menarche, age at menopause, or duration of estrogen replacement therapy. A history of tubal ligation or of hystereclomy with ovarian conservation was associated with reduced ovarian cancer risk. These observations suggest that pregnancy, breast feeding, and oral contraceptive use induce biological changes that protect against ovarian malignancy, that, at most, a small fraction of the excess ovarian cancer risk among nulliparous women is due to infertility, and that any increased risk associated with infertility may be due to the use of fertility drugs. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 136: 1184–1203
Harris, Robin, Whittemore, Alice S., Itnyre, Jacqueline, and Group, the Collaborative Ovarian Cancer
American Journal of Epidemiology; November 1992, Vol. 136 Issue: 10 p1204-1204, 1p
Epithelial ovarian neoplasms of low malignant potential, also called borderline ovarian tumors, have various features of malignancy, but they do not invade the ovarian stroma. Women with these tumors usually are younger when diagnosed and have better prognoses than do women with invasive tumors. There have been few epidemiologic studies of borderline tumors, and it is unclear whether there are etiologic differences between the two types of tumor behavior. Combined data from nine case-control studies, conducted from 1974 to 1986 and representing 327 white women with tumors of low malignant potential and 4, 144 white controls, were used to evaluate the relation between these tumors and personal characteristics related to invasive ovarian cancer. The risk profile for tumors of low malignant potential was found to be similar to that for invasive tumors, with two exceptions: Compared with that of invasive tumors, risk of borderline tumors was less clearly reduced among women who had used oral contraceptives and more clearly elevated among women with a history of Infertility. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 136: 1204–11
Whittemore, Alice S., Harris, Robin, ltnyre, Jacqueline, and Group, the Collaborative Ovarian Cancer
American Journal of Epidemiology; November 1992, Vol. 136 Issue: 10 p1212-1212, 1p
Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the reduced risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with pregnancy and oral contraceptive use. The first states that some sequelae of ovulation increase the likelihood of malignancy and that pregnancies and oral contraceptives protect by suppressing ovulation. The second hypothesis states that circulating levels of pituitary gonadotropins increase the risk of malignancy and that pregnancies and oral contraceptives protect by suppressing secretion of these hormones. The authors evaluate the two hypotheses in light of combined data from 12 United States case-oxitrol studies of epithelial ovarian cancer in white women conducted from 1956 to 1986. While a number of observations support both hypotheses, there are exceptions. Differential risk reduction associated with pregnancy and oral contraceptive use (pregnancy being the more effective in young women and the less effective in older women) conflicts with the first “ovulation” hypothesis, while reduced risk associated with breast feeding and absence of altered risk associated with estrogen replacement therapy conflicts with the second “gonadotropin” hypothesis. Several findings would not have been predicted by either hypothesis, e.g., only weak trends relate cancer risk to age at menarche, and, among older women, no clear trends relate risk to age at menopause. Odds ratio attenuation due to errors in reporting personal characteristics may be responsible for some of these inconsistencies. Multidisciplinary research is needed to clarify the etkrfogic roles of ovulation and gonadotropin stimulation, both of which may enhance carcinogenesis in the ovarian epithelium. Am J Epidemiol 1992: 136: 1212–20
John, Esther M., Whittemore, Alice S., Harris, Robin, Itnyre, Jacqueline, and Group, Collaborative Ovarian Cancer
JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute; January 1993, Vol. 85 Issue: 2 p142-142, 1p
Background Previous epidemiologic studies of ovarian cancer have focused chiefly on White women, who have a higher incidence of ovarian cancer than Black women. No study has previously examined risk factors for ovarian cancer among Black women. Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in Black women in relation to reproductive characteristics such as pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, and breast-feeding, and to determine whether differences in reproductive factors between Black and White women account for differences in ovarian cancer incidence. Methods Combining interview data from seven case-control studies, we compared reproductive characteristics of 110 Black case subjects with a diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer between 1971 and 1986 with characteristics of 251 Black population control subjects and 114 Black hospital control subjects. We also compared the prevalence of reproductive factors in 246 Black population control subjects and 4378 White population control subjects and estimated the fraction of Black-White differences in ovarian cancer incidence attributable to racial differences in prevalence of these characteristics. Results Decreased risks of epithelial ovarian cancer in Black women were associated with parity of four or higher (odds ratio [OR]=0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.1), breast-feeding for 6 months or longer (OR=0.85; 95% CI=0.36–2.0), and use of oral contraceptives for 6 years or longer (OR=0.62; 95% CI=0.24–1.6). A greater proportion of Black women (48%) than White women (27%) reported four or more term pregnancies, and Black women (62%) were more likely than White women (53%) to have breast-fed their children. Oral contraceptive use was more common among White women (59%) than Black women (51%). Conclusions Differences in the prevalence of other factors related to ovarian cancer risk or differences in genetic susceptibility must explain most of the Black-White differences in incidence of ovarian cancer. [J Natl Cancer Inst 85:142–147, 1993]
Adaptation, Psychological, Adult, Chronic Disease, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Female, Humans, Male, Regression Analysis, Social Support, Socioeconomic Factors, Surveys and Questionnaires, Life Change Events, Pain psychology, and Quality of Life
Cognitive appraisal processes or the meaning a person gives a stressful event are believed to mediate an individual's reaction to an event and, as such, have been demonstrated to explain adjustment to illness. The purpose of this paper is to test this cognitive as well as other social and illness variables to explain the variance in a person's adjustment to chronic pain. Two hundred and twenty-two patients, who were randomly selected from an original sample of referrals to a chronic pain specialty clinic, completed a questionnaire by telephone interview or mail. The questionnaire consisted of psychosocial scales (PAIS-SR; Social Support) and cognitions including the Meaning of Illness Questionnaire (MIQ). Fifty-six percent of the sample had poor psychosocial adjustment to their pain problem. Seventy percent of the variance in adjustment was explained by social and cognitive variables which corroborates their importance. The MIQ 5-factor structure was supported and provides credible evidence of the role of cognitions in differentiating between the poor and well adjusted.
Ohlendieck, Kay, Partin, Jacqueline S., Stears, Robin L., and Lennarz, William J.
Developmental Biology; September 1994, Vol. 165 Issue: 1 p53-62, 10p
Little is known about the biochemical changes underlying the morphological differentiation of the sea urchin egg during oogenesis. Because of this and the essential role of gamete recognition in fertilization, we studied the developmental expression of the recently identified egg surface receptor for sperm during oogenesis. Consecutive stages of ovaries undergoing oogenesis over a 4-month time course were examined morphologically and assessed with respect to content of sperm receptor mRNA, as well as the content and subcellular distribution of the sperm receptor glycoprotein. Although in early oocyte stages neither mRNA encoding for the receptor nor receptor glycoprotein was detectable, at the last two stages of development the level of receptor mRNA accumulation increased dramatically. This finding correlated well with immunoblot analyses which established that sperm receptor protein was only detectable at the last two stages of egg maturation. Interestingly, immunocytochemistry showed that the formation of the receptor correlated temporally and spatially with the formation of cortical granules. In the earlier of these two stages of maturation, the receptor population identified by immunoblotting was found by immunocytochemistry to be restricted to the cortical granules and small vesicles in the cytoplasm. In contrast, at the last stage of egg maturation, sperm receptor was also detected at the surface of the oocyte, localized predominantly to the microvilli. Two receptor populations appear to exist, one in cortical granules and a second at the cell surface that may be formed via secretory vesicles. The late appearance of the receptor on the plasma membrane during oogenesis is consistent with its biological role in binding sperm to the mature egg cell surface.
In a national sample of 11 634 Canadians aged 15 years and above, risk curves for harm to six life-areas from one's own drinking and for assault by another drinker rose steadily with the respondent's volume of alcohol consumption. While drinking five or more drinks on an occasion at least once a month substantially raised the risk at a given volume of drinking, the risk rose with volume even among those not regularly drinking five or more drinks. These relationships remained in logistic regressions which controlled for gender, age and educational level. Younger respondents, those without higher education and men reported more harm for a given level of their own drinking although differences by gender disappeared above one-third of one drink per day. Three sets of guidelines for low-risk drinking-two from Canada, and one generally used in Britain-were compared in terms of the proportions of respondents reporting harm from their own drinking among those who had kept within the guideline in the previous 7 days' drinking. More restrictiveness in the guidelines was associated with substantial reductions in reported drinking-related harm. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Willis, D. M., Singh, J. Robin, and Comer, Jacqueline
Annales Geophysicae; February 1997, Vol. 15 Issue: 2 p165-180, 16p
The technique of tracing along magnetic field lines is widely used in magnetospheric physics to provide a “magnetic frame of reference” that facilitates both the planning of experiments and the interpretation of observations. The precision of any such magnetic frame of reference depends critically on the accurate representation of the various sources of magnetic field in the magnetosphere. In order to consider this important problem systematically, a study is initiated to estimate first the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing in the magnetosphere that arise solely from the published (standard) errors in the specification of the geomagnetic field of internal origin. Because of the complexity in computing these uncertainties for the complete geomagnetic field of internal origin, attention is focused in this preliminary paper on the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing that result from the standard errors in just the axisymmetric part of the internal geomagnetic field. An exact analytic equation exists for the magnetic field lines of an arbitrary linear combination of axisymmetric multipoles. This equation is used to derive numerical estimates of the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing that are due to the published standard errors in the axisymmetric spherical harmonic coefficients (i.e. gn0 ± dgn0). Numerical results determined from the analytic equation are compared with computational results based on stepwise numerical integration along magnetic field lines. Excellent agreement is obtained between the analytical and computational methods in the axisymmetric case, which provides great confidence in the accuracy of the computer program used for stepwise numerical integration along magnetic field lines. This computer program is then used in the following paper to estimate the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing in the magnetosphere that arise from the published standard errors in the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients, which define the complete (non-axisymmetric) geomagnetic field of internal origin. Numerical estimates of the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing in the magnetosphere, calculated here for the axisymmetric part of the internal geomagnetic filed, should be regarded as “first approximations” in the sense that such estimates are only as accurate as the published standard errors in the set of axisymmetric spherical harmonic coefficients. However, all procedures developed in this preliminary paper can be applied to the derivation of more realistic estimates of the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing in the magnetosphere, following further progress in the determination of more accurate standard errors in the spherical harmonic coefficients.
Dunton, Charles J., van Hoeven, Karen H., Kovatich, Al J., Oliver, Robin E., Scacheri, Robert Q., Cater, Jacqueline R., and Carlson, John A.
Gynecologic Oncology; March 1997, Vol. 64 Issue: 3 p451-455, 5p
The purpose of the work was to determine the feasibility and predictive value of Ki-67 immunostaining of cervical cytology and the detection of cervical dysplasia. Air-dried cervical smears were stained with MIB-1 antibody to identify the Ki-67 antigen. Nuclear decoration in abnormal squamous nuclei determined immunoreactivity. One hundred twenty-four nonpregnant patients underwent colposcopy and directed biopsies for abnormal cytology. Sensitivity (0.89), specificity (0.65), positive predictive value (0.60), and negative predictive value (0.91) were found for Ki-67 immunostaining in detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in 124 patients and positive Ki-67 staining was a significant predictor of high-grade CIN in both univariate (odds ratio 15.5 (95% CI 5.5–43.8) and multivariable (odds ratio 21.5 (95% CI 5.0–92.0) analysis. In 101 patients with ASCUS and LGSIL, Ki-67 immunostaining demonstrated the following in detection of high-grade CIN: sensitivity (0.96), specificity (0.67), positive predictive value (0.49), and negative predictive value (0.98). Ki-67 immunostaining of cervical cytology is a predictor of significant cervical pathology with high sensitivity and negative predictive value. Ki-67 immunostaining of cervical cytology may represent a new and cost-effective triage tool for patients with minor abnormalities on cytology.
Reeves, Jacqueline D., McKnight, ÁINE, Potempa, Sandra, Simmons, Graham, Gray, Patrick W., Power, Christine A., Wells, Timothy, Weiss, Robin A., and Talbot, Simon J.
Virology; April 1997, Vol. 231 Issue: 1 p130-134, 5p
We have assayed a variety of 7tm chemokine receptors (CCR-2b, CCR-3, CCR-4, CCR-5, CXCR-1, CXCR-4) and two orphan 7tm receptors (V28 and EBI.1) for their ability to allow infection of CD4-negative feline kidney CCC cells by the HIV-2 strains ROD/A and ROD/B. We found that ROD/B was able to use CXCR-4 transiently expressed in CCC cells, and infection by ROD/A was enhanced 15-fold in the presence of sCD4. Feline CCC cells also became permissive to ROD/B and ROD/A entry when transiently transfected with the chemokine receptor CCR-3 or the orphan 7tm receptor V28, when cultured in the presence of sCD4. Entry of ROD/A into CCC cells expressing CCR-3 could be blocked by 800 ng/ml eotaxin, the natural ligand for CCR-3.