Edington, Jacqueline, Geekie, Moira, Carter, Robin, Benfield, Lisa, Fisher, Karen, Ball, Madeleine, and Mann, Jim
British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition). 2/7/1987, Vol. 294 Issue 6568, p333-336. 4p. 1 Diagram, 4 Charts.
LOW-fat diet and BLOOD cholesterol
Examines the effect of dietary cholesterol on plasma cholesterol concentration in subjects following low fat diet in Great Britain. Ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids; Comparison of the cholesterol concentration among subjects; Importance of dietary cholesterol for the reduction of saturated fats.
An automated method for measuring beta-hydroxybutyrate was adapted to the Ciba-Corning 550 Express trade mark random access analyzer. The assay was based on a kinetic reaction utilizing hydroxybutyrate-dehydrogenase. Beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration (mmol/L) was calculated ratiometrically using a 1.0 mmol/l standard. Canine serum, plasma, and urine were used without prior deproteinization and only a 30-microliter sample was required. The method demonstrated good linearity between 0 to 2 mmol/l of beta-hydroxybutyrate. Analytical recovery (accuracy) within these concentrations ranged from 85.8 to 113.3%. Both within-run and day-to-day precision were determined, as was specificity of the assay in the presence of a variety of interfering substances. The automated assay was rapid and economical, with reagent stability maintained for at least 2 weeks at 4 degrees C. This assay can readily be applied toward the assessment of ketoacidosis in dogs, and with further validation, other species.
BMJ: British Medical Journal (International Edition). 3/7/92, Vol. 304 Issue 6827, p591. 6p. 4 Black and White Photographs, 1 Diagram.
MEDICINE, FETAL tissue research, POPULATION & the environment, FETAL death, and POLITICAL science
Presents global developments on the political aspects of medicine as of March 1992. Progress on fetal tissue research and transplants in Australia, Europe, and the United States; Increase in human population; Disposal of fetuses and fetus remains.
Scull, Christopher, Ager, Barry, Bourn, Robert, Cameron, Esther, Clogg, P. W., Creighton, John, Edwards, Glynis, Gelling, Margaret, Gilmour, Brian, Harman, Mary, Henry, Pippa, Holgate, Robin, Huntley, Jacqueline P., Johnson, Paul, Linford, Neil, Marlow, C. A., Mortimer, Catherine, Mudd, Andrew, Odenstedt, Bengt, and Page, R. I.
Archaeological Journal. 1992, Vol. 149, p124-281. 158p. 13 Black and White Photographs, 66 Diagrams, 12 Charts, 2 Graphs, 2 Maps.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL excavations, ARCHAEOLOGICAL surveying, ARCHAEOLOGY, INTERMENT, and IRON Age
Geophysical survey and excavation have demonstrated that iron age settlement features and early Anglo-Saxon burials discovered during road construction in 1983 were part o[ an extensive multi-period site, now a Scheduled Ancient Monument. This paper presents the results of the archaeological investigations. The bulk of the report is concerned with the early Anglo-Saxon burials, which included a grave containing a balance, weights and runic inscription. The evidence for late mesolithic, neolithic -- early bronze age, iron age and post-medieval activity is also discussed, and the site is considered in its regional and wider context. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Alcohol Health & Research World. 1993, Vol. 17 Issue 3, p235. 7p. 1 Chart.
BEER, INTERNATIONAL economic relations, and INTERNATIONAL trade
Demonstrates how United States and Canadian controls on the alcohol market affect public health. US-Canadian alcohol control; Public health implications; How the trade agreements (GATT, FTA, NAFTA) work; Trade disputes since 1985; The larger meaning of the disputes; Chronology of the US-Canada beer dispute; Glossary; Summary.
Adaptation, Psychological, Adult, Chronic Disease, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Female, Humans, Male, Regression Analysis, Social Support, Socioeconomic Factors, Surveys and Questionnaires, Life Change Events, Pain psychology, and Quality of Life
Cognitive appraisal processes or the meaning a person gives a stressful event are believed to mediate an individual's reaction to an event and, as such, have been demonstrated to explain adjustment to illness. The purpose of this paper is to test this cognitive as well as other social and illness variables to explain the variance in a person's adjustment to chronic pain. Two hundred and twenty-two patients, who were randomly selected from an original sample of referrals to a chronic pain specialty clinic, completed a questionnaire by telephone interview or mail. The questionnaire consisted of psychosocial scales (PAIS-SR; Social Support) and cognitions including the Meaning of Illness Questionnaire (MIQ). Fifty-six percent of the sample had poor psychosocial adjustment to their pain problem. Seventy percent of the variance in adjustment was explained by social and cognitive variables which corroborates their importance. The MIQ 5-factor structure was supported and provides credible evidence of the role of cognitions in differentiating between the poor and well adjusted.
In a national sample of 11 634 Canadians aged 15 years and above, risk curves for harm to six life-areas from one's own drinking and for assault by another drinker rose steadily with the respondent's volume of alcohol consumption. While drinking five or more drinks on an occasion at least once a month substantially raised the risk at a given volume of drinking, the risk rose with volume even among those not regularly drinking five or more drinks. These relationships remained in logistic regressions which controlled for gender, age and educational level. Younger respondents, those without higher education and men reported more harm for a given level of their own drinking although differences by gender disappeared above one-third of one drink per day. Three sets of guidelines for low-risk drinking-two from Canada, and one generally used in Britain-were compared in terms of the proportions of respondents reporting harm from their own drinking among those who had kept within the guideline in the previous 7 days' drinking. More restrictiveness in the guidelines was associated with substantial reductions in reported drinking-related harm. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
TUBERCULOSIS prevention, MEDICAL care of HIV-positive persons, ISONIAZID, PTERIDINES, and DRUG efficacy
Studies the effectiveness of isoniazid versus rifampicin with pyrazinamide for prevention of tuberculosis in HIV-1 positive individuals. Methods for comparing efficacy of the chemoprophylaxis regimens; Findings; Interpretation. INSET: Disease categories.