TESTING, QUALITY, ELECTRONICS, RELIABILITY in engineering, MATHEMATICAL optimization, and MAINTAINABILITY (Engineering)
A new technique for reliability and quality optimization of electronic components and assemblies, the so called in situ accelerated ageing technique with electrical testing, is presented. This technique is extremely useful for the building-in approach to quality and reliability. First, it can be used to optimize an electronic component or assembly with respect to its quality and reliability performance at a very early stage, i.e. at the design level, at the level of materials selection, and at the level of identifying production techniques and defining production parameters. The typical test time is of the order of 24 hours, which is sufficiently short to allow a design of experiments type approach to quality and reliability optimization. Furthermore, the technique is also very useful for obtaining a deeper understanding of the physico-chemical processes which lead to failure. A number of practical examples where the technique has been successfully applied are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Heinrichs, E. A., Sy, A. A., Akator, S. K., and Oyediran, I.
International Journal of Pest Management. Oct-Dec1997, Vol. 43 Issue 4, p291-297. 7p.
PLANTING and RICE
Monthly plantings of the rice variety Bouake 189 were made under lowland irrigated conditions, to obtain information on the phenological and seasonal occurrence of pests and diseases on the West African Rice Development Association (WARDA) research farm near Bouake, Cote d'Ivoire. Regular sampling of insect pests and observations on rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) disease infection throughout the year provided information on the occurrence of RYMV and potential insect vectors. RYMV incidence and grain yields varied depending on planting date, and for a given planting date, varied from one year to another. There was no evidence that RYMV incidence increases in successive seasons under continuous cropping. There was no significant correlation between RYMV incidence and either rainfall or wind speed. Leaf feeding damage by the beetle vector of RYMV, Trichispa sericea Guerin-Meneville (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and percentage RYMV infected plants were severe in the July and August plantings in 1993, but whereas T. sericea was not observed thereafter, RYMV spread continued. The white leafhoppers Cofana spectra (Distant) and C. unimaculata (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), the green leafhoppers Nephotettix spp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), the spittle bug Locris rubra F. (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), the diopsids Diopsis longicornis Macquart and D. apicalis Dalman (Diptera: Diopsidae), and the grasshopper Oxy hyla Stal (Orthoptera: Acridadae) were the most abundant of the insect pests and had distinct population peaks within a year. However, population abundances were not correlated with RYMV incidence. The variability of RYMV in time and space and the potential role of weeds as alternative hosts for RYMV are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Explores the ecological aspects of dinitrogen fixation in the world's oceans. Diversity of dinitrogen-fixing microorganisms; Major controls on rates of oceanic dinitrogen fixation; Significance of dinitrogen fixation for the global carbon cycle; Role of human activities in the alteration of oceanic dinitrogen fixation.
The effects of secondary metabolites in different Vigna species on the development of Clavigralla tomentosicollis were investigated in an artificial seed system using different fractions of crude pod extracts, while the orientation response of this pod-bug to volatile extracts was studied using a dual-choice olfactometer. Feeding on the neutral fraction extracts, in contrast to the basic and acidic fractions, resulted in significantly higher mortalities, longer total developmental time, and lower growth index of the insects in comparison with controls. All volatile extracts elicited an avoidance reaction by C. tomentosicollis, except the volatile from the susceptible genotype IT84S-2246 which generally attracted as many insects as controls. Extracts from wild Vigna species showed higher activity than those from their cultivated relatives. The present study which has established that most secondary metabolites in cowpea pods were localized in the neutral fraction of the crude extract, could facilitate experiments on the separation and characterization of the toxic factors involved. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The results of investigation of the relation between the grain size in the intermediate stages of manufacturing electrical steel and various physical characteristics are given. The investigations are carried out for the purpose of clarifying the possibility of using these characteristics for arranging nondestructive testing of the grain size in the process of steel manufacturing. The paper contains the results of tests performed with the use of the methods of measuring the leakage magnetic fields on the grain boundaries by means of yttrium iron garnet films employed for visualization of the magnetic fields, the Barkhausen effect, the ultrasonic and eddy-current methods, the electromagnetic-acoustic conversion (EMAC) method, and the use of the relation between the grain size and the value of the coercive force. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
INTERTIDAL ecology, SEDIMENTATION & deposition, POLYMERIC composites, DIATOMS, and ALGAE
The sediment-stabilizing effect of benthic diatoms was investigated in a laboratory setting. Axenic cultures of the benthic diatoms Nitzschia cf. brevissima and Cylindrotheca closterium were inoculated in Petri dishes containing sand and incubated under axenic conditions. By ensuring aseptic routines throughout the experiments, interference from other organisms occurring with diatoms in natural photothrophic biofilms was avoided. This allowed the examination of the role of benthic diatoms in sediment stabilization. Increases in the critical erosion shear stress of the sediment were observed in the presence of both diatom taxa relative to sterile sediment. However, N. cf. brevissima was more effective than C. closterium. Values of critical shear stress in the experimental system were in the same range as those observed in natural biofilms, which indicates that diatoms are important agents for biogenic stabilization. Extracellular carbohydrate contents in the microcosms were similar for both diatom species. However, in the presence of N cf. brevissima, extracellular carbohydrate correlated significantly to critical shear stress, explaining up to 80% of the variation, whereas this was not the case for C. closterium. Therefore, it was concluded that the quantity of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) alone did not explain the biogenic stabilization. Observed adsorption of EPS to sediment particles depended on the relative amount of uronic acids in the exopolymers. Using fluorescently labeled lectins, confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that EPS secretion by N. cf. brevissima resulted in ordered three-dimensional matrix structures. It is suggested that the structuring of EPS plays an prominent role in the process of biostabilization, and that diatoms such as N. cf. brevissima are actively involved in producing the structure of EPS, whereas others such as C. closterium do not do so to the same extent. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
BREAST cancer, CANCER in women, CANCER treatment, THERAPEUTICS, TAMOXIFEN, TUMOR growth, and ESTROGEN
Background: Subgroups of breast cancer that have an impaired response to endocrine treatment, despite hormone receptor positivily, are still poorly defined. Breast cancer can be subdivided according to standard pathological parameters including histological type, grade, and assessment of proliferation. These parameters are the net result of combinations of genetic alterations effecting tumour behaviour and could potentially reflect subtypes that respond differently to endocrine treatment. Aims: To investigate the usefulness of these parameters as predictors of the response to tamoxifen in premenopausal women with breast cancer. Materials/methods: Clinically established pathological parameters were assessed and related to the tamoxifen response in 500 available tumour specimens from 564 premenopausal patients with breast cancer randomised to either two years of tamoxifen or no treatment with 14 years of follow up. Proliferation was further evaluated by immunohistochemical Ki-67 expression. Results: Oestrogen receptor positive ductal carcinomas responded as expected to tamoxifen, whereas the difference in recurrence free survival between control and tamoxifen treated patients was less apparent in the relatively few lobular carcinomas. For histological grade, there was no obvious difference in treatment response between the groups. The relation between proliferation and tamoxifen response seemed to be more complex, with a clear response in tumours with high and low proliferation, whereas tumours with intermediate proliferation defined by Ki-67 responded more poorly. Conclusions: Clinically established pathology parameters seem to mirror the endocrine treatment response and could potentially be valuable in future treatment decisions for patients with breast cancer. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
MALONDIALDEHYDE, PEROXIDATION, CRYOBIOLOGY, and ALCOHOLS (Chemical class)
Abstract: Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a widely used marker of oxidative lipid injury whose concentration varies in response to biotic and abiotic stress. Commonly, MDA is quantified as a strong light-absorbing and fluorescing adduct following reaction with thiobarbituric acid (TBA). However, plant tissues in particular contain many compounds that potentially interfere with this reaction and whose concentrations also vary according to the tissue type and stress conditions. As part of our studies into the stress responses of plant tissues, we were interested in developing a rapid, accurate, and robust protocol for MDA analysis using reverse-phased HPLC to avoid these problems with reaction specificity. We demonstrate that a partitioning step into n-butanol during sample preparation is essential and that gradient HPLC analysis is necessary to prevent sample carryover between injections. Furthermore, the starting composition of the mobile phase must be sufficiently hydrophobic to allow direct injection of the n-butanol extracts without peak splitting, tailing, and other artifacts. To minimize analysis times, we used a short, so-called “Rocket” HPLC column and high flow rates. The optimized HPLC separation has a turnaround time of 2.5min per sample. Butanolic extracts of MDA(TBA)2 were stable for at least 48h, and recoveries were linear between 0.38 and 7.5pmol MDA added. Importantly, this procedure proved to be compatible with existing extraction procedures for l-ascorbate and glutathione analysis in different plant species, allowing multiple “stress metabolite” analyses to be carried out on a single tissue extract. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
CHAGAS' disease, RHODNIUS prolixus, RHODNIUS, CONENOSES, TRYPANOSOMIASIS, LIFE expectancy, LIFE spans, and LIFE (Biology)
Rhodnius prolixus Stål (Reduviidae: Rhodninii) is one of the most important vectors of Chagas disease. As a result of its medical importance, several life history studies have been carried out, but in general with a restricted demographical scope, without assessing the potential tradeoffs in the life history of this insect. In this study, individuals of R. prolixus were kept in two spatially different habitats and several fitness components were measured. The results show that life expectancy in adults is negatively correlated with gross fecundity, indicating a cost of reproduction. Life expectancy is shorter for males and longer for individuals of the same sex in the more complex habitat, where the fitness is lower compared with that of the simpler habitat. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Takiya, Daniela M., McKamey, Stuart H., and Cavichioli, Rodney R.
Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Jul2006, Vol. 99 Issue 4, p648-655. 8p.
ANIMAL classification, ANIMAL species, IDENTIFICATION of animals, HEMIPTERA, and INSECTS
A male of Tettigonia vitripennis Germar--deposited in the recently rediscovered Germar Hemiptera collection, in the Ivan Franko National University (Ukraine)--is designated as the lectotype and assumed to be erroneously labeled as from Brazil. Homalodisca vitripennis is considered a senior synonym of Tettigonia coagulata syn. nov. and therefore should be used as the scientific name for the glassy-winged sharpshooter, a major vector of the bacterial Pierce's disease of grapes, phony peach disease, plum leaf scald, and oleander leaf scorch in southern United States and northern Mexico. The previously designated type species of Homalodisca Stål, Cicada triquetra F., was found to be mistaken by Stål for C. triangularis F., which is herein fixed as the new type species of this economically important genus. Propetes triquetra comb. nov., previously known only from an unknown locality in South America, is newly recorded from Brazil (Mato Grosso and Pará states). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]