BIODIVERSITY, GRASSHOPPER behavior, BIOMES, PHYLOGENY, and SPECIES distribution
Abstract: The open vegetation biomes, within the limits of the Chacoan subregion, occur along a diagonal in eastern South America covering a large range of environmental conditions. In order to contribute to the knowledge on the biodiversity of these open biomes, we analysed the phylogenetic relationships of the grasshopper genus Zoniopoda to the remaining South American Romaleinae, and examined the biogeographical patterns of diversification of the genus. The study is based on morphological and molecular (COI and H3) evidence, including 12 species of Zoniopoda and 17 species of four tribes of South American Romaleinae. We describe a new species of Zoniopoda, and test its taxonomic placement within the group. Results of our phylogenetic analyses recovered Zoniopoda as a monophyletic group with high support values. According to the dispersion–vicariance analysis, the ancestor of Zoniopoda may have been distributed in an area corresponding to the Chacoan and Cerrado provinces. A vicariant event, that could be explained by the uplift of the Brazilian Plateau and the subsidence of the Chaco, is hypothesized to have occurred splitting the ancestral distribution of Zoniopoda, resulting in the independent evolution of the Tarsata group within the Cerrado and the Iheringi group in the Chacoan subregion. This published work has been registered in ZooBank, http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:FCFB4C5D-1741-46F1-8E25-B37ED2B9D872. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
ÁLVAREZ, Leopoldo J., BERNARDIS, Adela M., DEFEA, Bárbara S., DELLAPÉ, Pablo M., DEL RÍO, María G., GITTINS LÓPEZ, Cecilia G., LANTERI, Analía A., LÓPEZ ARMENGOL, María F., MARINO DE REMES LENICOV, Ana M., MINGHETTI, Eugenia, PARADELL, Susana L., and RIZZO, María E.
Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina; 2021, Vol. 80 Issue 1, p48-69, 22p
HYMENOPTERA, CURCULIONIDAE, HOMOPTERA, PEST control, INSECT collection & preservation, BEETLES, and HEMIPTERA
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A study was conducted to investigate the insecticidal potency of leaf and stem ethanolic extracts of white sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) on the pod-sucking bug (Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stal.) under laboratory conditions. Four different concentrations of the extracts (5.00, 10.00, 15.00 and 20.00 mg/l) of ethanolic extracts were prepared from the leaf and stem parts of the Sesame plant. Water and Cypermethrin were used as negative and positive controls. Fresh cowpea pods were treated with the various concentrations of the stem and leaf ethanolic extracts and the pod-sucking bugs were introduced into the jars containing the pods. The result obtained revealed significant differences (P≤0.05) in the effect of various concentrations in inducing mortality of the insects at different instars. The extracts were more effective in the first (1st) instars against the pod-sucking bugs. The activity is concentration dependent as it increases with increase in concentration of the extract. However, leaf ethanolic extract proved to be more effective. More so, the percentages of pods infested by the bugs were found to be lower among the 20.00 mg/l treated pods in both stem and leaf ethanolic extracts. The phytochemical result indicated the presence of certain phytochemicals such as alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, diterpenoids, flavonoids, proteins, saponins, steroids, tannins and triterpenoids that were proved to be vital in the insecticidal activity of the extracts. Thus, the stem and leaf ethanolic extracts of sesame are effective botanical insecticides against C. tomentosicollis especially at 20.00 mg/l of the leaf extract. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Most stink bugs (Pentatomidae) are polyphagous and feed on an array of cultivated and non-cultivated plants. Among the last, weed plants play an important role in their bioecology and pest status, particularly in the Neotropics, in where stink bugs are active during most of the year. In spite of this, the weeds role is, in general, underestimated. In this review article we present and discuss the importance of weed plants present in row crops and pasture lands, affecting stink bugs pests of major commodities in the Neotropics. We surveyed the literature and other sources (unpublished records) on the presence of stink bugs on weed plants. These plants were ranked as hosts (allowing nymph development and/or adult reproduction) or as associated plants (providing some nutrients/water/shelter, but not allowing nymph and/or adult performance). The following stink bug pest species were covered: The green-bellied stink bugs, Diceraeus furcatus (F.) and D. melacanthus Dallas; the Neotropical brown sink bug, Euschistus heros (F.); the brown-winged stink bug, Edessa meditabunda (F.); the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.); the rice stink bugs, Oebalus poecilus (Dallas) and O. ypsilongriseus (De Geer); the red-banded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood); the rice stalk stink bug, Tibraca limbativentris Stål; and the red-shouldered stink bug, Thyanta perditor (F.). The survey showed plants from 16 different families interacting with the 10 species of pest pentatomids analyzed, with the greater number of species of Fabaceae (16+), Poaceae (14+), and Asteraceae (7). Data demonstrated that, in the modern landscape scenario of agricultural areas in the Neotropics, highly polyphagous species, such as N. viridula, tend to suffer greater impact, while the oligophagous species, E. heros, D. furcatus, and D. melacanthus, in contrast, tend to be favored. The management of weed plants through the increase use of herbicides, multiple cropping, and the non-tillage cultivation systems seems to be the major factors influencing the interactions of stink bugs and weeds, changing the population dynamics of pest stink bugs in the Neotropics, and, consequently their pest status. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
STINKBUGS, POPULATION dynamics, RICE, PEST control, and PADDY fields
The rice stem stink bug, Tibraca limbativentris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is one of the most harmful insects for Brazilian rice fields. Aiming to define the most appropriate time and place for pest management measures in commercial paddy fields, we adjusted regression models (Poisson, Zero Inflated Poisson, reparametrized Zero Inflated Poisson, Negative Binomial and Zero Inflated Negative Binomial) for modeling the population variation of T. limbativentris along the phenological cycle of the flooded rice cultivation. We hypothesize that the rice stem stink bug population's size is influenced by the rice cycle (time) and geographical positions within the crop. It was possible to predict the occurrence of the rice stem stink bug in the commercial flooded rice crop. The population of the rice stem stink bug increased significantly with the time or phenological evolution of rice. Our results indicated that the start of T. limbativentris monitoring should occur up to 45 d After Plant Emergence (DAE), from the regions along the edges of the rice paddies, which are the points of entry and higher concentration of the insect. In addition, 45 and 60 DAE were considered the crucial times for T. limbativentris control decision making in flooded rice paddies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
BROWN marmorated stink bug, STINKBUGS, HEMIPTERA, GREENHOUSES, ADULTS, and COWPEA
Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of concern that must be controlled for market access of host material and regulated articles to certain countries. This work outlines a rearing system for BMSB on live cowpea plants, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae), including methods to induce adults to both enter and exit diapause. This scalable system affords continuous access to >600 specimens per week of each life stage and/or age group, which is particularly advantageous when developing treatment efficacy data. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The effects of secondary metabolites in different Vigna species on the development of Clavigralla tomentosicollis were investigated in an artificial seed system using different fractions of crude pod extracts, while the orientation response of this pod-bug to volatile extracts was studied using a dual-choice olfactometer. Feeding on the neutral fraction extracts, in contrast to the basic and acidic fractions, resulted in significantly higher mortalities, longer total developmental time, and lower growth index of the insects in comparison with controls. All volatile extracts elicited an avoidance reaction by C. tomentosicollis, except the volatile from the susceptible genotype IT84S-2246 which generally attracted as many insects as controls. Extracts from wild Vigna species showed higher activity than those from their cultivated relatives. The present study which has established that most secondary metabolites in cowpea pods were localized in the neutral fraction of the crude extract, could facilitate experiments on the separation and characterization of the toxic factors involved. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Arhrib, A., Hernandez-Sanchez, J., Mahmoudi, F., Santos, R., Akeroyd, A., Moretti, S., Yagyu, K., Yildirim, E., Khater, W., Krawczyk, M., Najjari, S., Sokołowska, D., Osland, P., Purmohammadi, M., Pruna, G., Sharma, P., Stål, O., Aoki, M., Basso, L., and Ginzburg, I.
European Physical Journal C -- Particles & Fields; May2017, Vol. 77 Issue 5, p1-33, 33p
HIGGS bosons, SCALAR field theory, SUPERSYMMETRY, STANDARD model (Nuclear physics), DARK matter, and MATHEMATICAL models
The goal of this report is to summarize the current situation and discuss possible search strategies for charged scalars, in non-supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model at the LHC. Such scalars appear in Multi-Higgs-Doublet models, in particular in the popular Two-Higgs-Doublet model, allowing for charged and additional neutral Higgs bosons. These models have the attractive property that electroweak precision observables are automatically in agreement with the Standard Model at the tree level. For the most popular version of this framework, Model II, a discovery of a charged Higgs boson remains challenging, since the parameter space is becoming very constrained, and the QCD background is very high. We also briefly comment on models with dark matter which constrain the corresponding charged scalars that occur in these models. The stakes of a possible discovery of an extended scalar sector are very high, and these searches should be pursued in all conceivable channels, at the LHC and at future colliders. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Background: Gonorrhoea, caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), can cause reproductive morbidity, is increasingly becoming resistant to antibiotics and is frequently asymptomatic, which shows the essential role of NG test practice. In this study we wanted to compare NG diagnostic testing procedures between different STI care providers serving a defined geographic Dutch region (280,000 inhabitants).Methods: Data on laboratory testing and diagnosis of urogenital and extragenital (i.e. anorectal and oropharyngeal) NG were retrieved from general practitioners (GPs), an STI clinic, and gynaecologists (2006-2010). Per provider, we assessed their contribution regarding the total number of tests performed and type of populations tested, the proportion of NG positives re-tested (3-12 months after treatment) and test-of-cure (TOC, within 3 months post treatment).Results: Overall, 17,702 NG tests (48.7% STI clinic, 38.2% GPs, 13.1% gynaecologists) were performed during 15,458 patient visits. From this total number of tests, 2257 (12.7%) were extragenital, of which 99.4% were performed by the STI clinic. Men were mostly tested at the STI clinic (71%) and women by their GP (43%). NG positivity per visit was 1.6%; GP 1.9% (n = 111), STI clinic 1.7% (n = 131) and gynaecology 0.2% (n = 5). NG positivity was associated with Chlamydia trachomatis positivity (OR: 2.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.46-2.92). Per anatomical location, the proportion of NG positives re-tested were: urogenital 20.3% (n = 36), anorectal 43.6% (n = 17) and oropharyngeal 57.1% (n = 20). NG positivity among re-tests was 16.9%. Proportions of NG positives with TOC by anatomical location were: urogenital 10.2% (n = 18), anorectal 17.9% (n = 7) and oropharyngeal 17.1% (n = 6).Conclusions: To achieve best practice in relation to NG testing, we recommend that: 1) GPs test at extragenital sites, especially men who have sex with men (MSM), 2) all care providers consider re-testing 3 to 12 months after NG diagnosis and 3) TOC is performed following oropharyngeal NG diagnosis in settings which provide services to higher-risk men and women (such as STI clinics). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
STINKBUGS, BROWN marmorated stink bug, PREDATION, HEMIPTERA, SPECIES, and LANDSCAPES
This study evaluated parasitism and predation on sentinel egg masses of three stink bug species, the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say), the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), and the invasive brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål), in ornamental landscapes composed of either native or exotic plants. This study also compared the species composition of parasitoids attacking two native stink bug species (P. maculiventris and E. servus) with those attacking the invasive BMSB on the same tree species in the same habitat. Overall, egg parasitism and predation were much higher on the two native stink bug species compared with BMSB, with an average parasitism rate of 20.6% for E. servus , 12.7% for P. maculiventris , and only 4.2% for H. halys and an average predation rate of 8.2% for E. servus, 17.7% for P. maculiventris, and 2.3% for H. halys. Egg predation was also significantly higher on P. maculiventris than on E. servus eggs. Eight parasitoid species attacked sentinel stink bug eggs in the ornamental landscaped plots. Trissolcus euschisti (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) was the predominant parasitoid for all three stink bug species. There were no significant differences in parasitism and predation rates on any of the stink bug species between native and exotic plots. Therefore, there is no evidence that ornamental landscapes composed of native plants increased parasitism or predation rates of sentinel egg masses of two native stink bug species or the invasive BMSB, compared with those composed entirely of exotic plants. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The article highlights a study which examined the characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of the myrocheine stink bug genus Ennius Stål, with special reference to its species Ennius monteironis Distant. The bug's metathoracic scent auricle, female genitalia and male genitalia including inflated aedeagus were investigated. The Ennius species belonged to the Myrochea Stål subclade, under the Myrocheini Stål genus and Kyrtalus genera. The Ennius was found to be predominantly Ethiopian in distribution.
Suitability of the pods of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) and soybean ( Glycine max (L.) Merrill) as food for Clavigralla tomentosicollis was determined in the laboratory using development, food substitution and host switch experiments. On soybean pods, nymphs survived for 8 days and adults for 12 days; on cowpea, all nymphal instars developed into adults and lived for 80-100 days. Teneral adults that were switched from cowpea to soybean lost weight, while adults that were moved from soybean to cowpea gained weight with slight differences between the sexes. The shortest critical survival threshold (duration with at least 50% survival) of adults on cowpea was greater than the longest on soybean. The likelihood of C. tomentosicollis exploiting soybean as a trophic niche in areas of tropical Africa where production of this crop is on the increase and usually contiguous with cowpea production, is discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Pezzini, Daniela T, DiFonzo, Christina D, Finke, Deborah L, Hunt, Thomas E, Knodel, Janet J, Krupke, Christian H, McCornack, Brian, Michel, Andrew P, Philips, Christopher R, Varenhorst, Adam J, Wright, Robert J, and Koch, Robert L
Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are an increasing threat to soybean (Fabales: Fabaceae) production in the North Central Region of the United States, which accounts for 80% of the country's total soybean production. Characterization of the stink bug community is essential for development of management programs for these pests. However, the composition of the stink bug community in the region is not well defined. This study aimed to address this gap with a 2-yr, 9-state survey. Specifically, we characterized the relative abundance, richness, and diversity of taxa in this community, and assessed phenological differences in abundance of herbivorous and predatory stink bugs. Overall, the stink bug community was dominated by Euschistus spp. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Euschistus variolarius (Palisot de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), C. hilaris and Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) were more abundant in the northwestern, southeastern and eastern parts, respectively, of the North Central Region of the United States. Economically significant infestations of herbivorous species occurred in fields in southern parts of the region. Species richness differed across states, while diversity was the same across the region. Herbivorous and predatory species were more abundant during later soybean growth stages. Our results represent the first regional characterization of the stink bug community in soybean fields and will be fundamental for the development of state- and region-specific management programs for these pests in the North Central Region of the United States. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]