Edington, Jacqueline, Geekie, Moira, Carter, Robin, Benfield, Lisa, Fisher, Karen, Ball, Madeleine, and Mann, Jim
British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition). 2/7/1987, Vol. 294 Issue 6568, p333-336. 4p. 1 Diagram, 4 Charts.
LOW-fat diet and BLOOD cholesterol
Examines the effect of dietary cholesterol on plasma cholesterol concentration in subjects following low fat diet in Great Britain. Ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids; Comparison of the cholesterol concentration among subjects; Importance of dietary cholesterol for the reduction of saturated fats.
Edington, Jacqueline D., Geekie, Moira, Carter, Robin, Benfield, Lisa, Ball, Madeleine, and Mann, Jim
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. July 1989, Vol. 50 Issue 1, p58, 5 p.
Health aspects, Physiological aspects, Research, Control, Hyperlipoproteinemia -- Health aspects, Cholesterol -- Physiological aspects, Low cholesterol diet -- Research, Blood cholesterol -- Control, and Low-cholesterol diet -- Research
Both cholesterol and saturated fat in the diet have been linked to increased risk of coronary artery disease. Dietary cholesterol and saturated fat appear to contribute to heart disease by raising blood cholesterol. The elevated circulating cholesterol may adhere to the inner walls of the coronary arteries, slowing or blocking blood flow. While dietary cholesterol is only found in animal foods such as meat, eggs and dairy products, saturated fat may be found in animal or vegetable foods. Persons who wish to reduce their risk of heart disease are usually advised to make several changes in their diet: reduce cholesterol, reduce saturated fat, and increase fiber. The 58 participants followed a low-saturated-fat, high-fiber diet throughout the 12 weeks. To this background diet were added nine eggs per week for the first four weeks, zero eggs for the second four weeks and nine eggs per week for the last four weeks. Eggs were used as a source of cholesterol. The participants' blood cholesterol levels did not change significantly when the number of eggs was changed from nine to zero and back to nine. The subjects showed no consistent evidence of 'hyperresponse', defined as a greater than average increase in blood cholesterol in response to a given increase in dietary cholesterol. It is concluded that once a person is eating a low-saturated-fat, high-fiber diet, reducing dietary cholesterol to below 400 mg per day provides little additional benefit in terms of lowering blood cholesterol. A cholesterol intake of 400 mg per day is considered moderate and was provided in the diet containing nine eggs per week. When subjects added zero eggs to the background diet they consumed 90 mg cholesterol per day.
BMJ: British Medical Journal (International Edition). 3/7/92, Vol. 304 Issue 6827, p591. 6p. 4 Black and White Photographs, 1 Diagram.
MEDICINE, FETAL tissue research, POPULATION & the environment, FETAL death, and POLITICAL science
Presents global developments on the political aspects of medicine as of March 1992. Progress on fetal tissue research and transplants in Australia, Europe, and the United States; Increase in human population; Disposal of fetuses and fetus remains.
Scull, Christopher, Ager, Barry, Bourn, Robert, Cameron, Esther, Clogg, P. W., Creighton, John, Edwards, Glynis, Gelling, Margaret, Gilmour, Brian, Harman, Mary, Henry, Pippa, Holgate, Robin, Huntley, Jacqueline P., Johnson, Paul, Linford, Neil, Marlow, C. A., Mortimer, Catherine, Mudd, Andrew, Odenstedt, Bengt, and Page, R. I.
Archaeological Journal. 1992, Vol. 149, p124-281. 158p. 13 Black and White Photographs, 66 Diagrams, 12 Charts, 2 Graphs, 2 Maps.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL excavations, ARCHAEOLOGICAL surveying, ARCHAEOLOGY, INTERMENT, and IRON Age
Geophysical survey and excavation have demonstrated that iron age settlement features and early Anglo-Saxon burials discovered during road construction in 1983 were part o[ an extensive multi-period site, now a Scheduled Ancient Monument. This paper presents the results of the archaeological investigations. The bulk of the report is concerned with the early Anglo-Saxon burials, which included a grave containing a balance, weights and runic inscription. The evidence for late mesolithic, neolithic -- early bronze age, iron age and post-medieval activity is also discussed, and the site is considered in its regional and wider context. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Ackland, Jacqueline F., Schwartz, Neena B., Mayo, Kelly E., and Dodson, Robin E.
Physiological Reviews. July 1992, Vol. 72 Issue 3, p731, 57 p.
Physiological aspects, Evaluation, Gonads -- Physiological aspects, Ovaries -- Physiological aspects, Testis -- Physiological aspects, Sex hormones -- Physiological aspects, Peptide hormones -- Evaluation, and Hormones, Sex -- Physiological aspects
The various peptide factors produced in the testes and ovaries are reviewed. Chemical isolation, purification, and amino acid and nucleotide sequencing have led to the understanding of the mechanisms of actions of these nonsteroidal agents. Among the gonadal peptides identified are inhibin, relaxin, oocyte meiosis inhibitor and growth factors. The study of the functions of these peptides have led to the identification of other proteins such as luteinizing inhibitor and clusterin. Immunological or molecular probes were also able to detect factors originally identified in other glands such as propiomelanocortin and atrial natriuretic factor.
Vallacher, Robin R., Wegner, Daniel M., McMahan, Susan C., Cotter, Jacqueline, and Larsen, Kathleen A.
Social Cognition. Fall, 1992, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p335, 21 p. graph
Self-presentation -- Research, Identification (Psychology) -- Research, and Social psychology -- Research
Eighty undergraduate students were asked to describe themselves using high-level or low-level terms of action identification theory and self-presentation. The subjects were told that they were trying to impress an easily-impressionable person or a difficult-to-impress person. Ratings made by the subjects and observers showed that low-level terms of action identificationtheory and self-presentation such as smiling when appropriate, were more effective in terms of getting positive first impressions.
John, Esther M., Whittemore, Alice S., Harris, Robin, and Itnyre, Jacqueline
Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Jan 20, 1993, Vol. 85 Issue 2, p142, 6 p.
Risk factors, Health aspects, Research, Ovarian cancer -- Risk factors, African American women -- Health aspects, Oral contraceptives -- Health aspects, Breast feeding -- Health aspects, and Disease susceptibility -- Research
Background: Previous epidemiologic studies of ovarian cancer have focused chiefly on White women, who have a higher incidence of ovarian cancer than Black women. No study has previously examined risk factors for ovarian cancer among Black women. Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in Black women in relation to reproductive characteristics such as pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, and breast-feeding, and to determine whether differences in reproductive factors between Black and White women account for differences in ovarian cancer incidence. Methods: Combining interview data from seven case-control studies, we compared reproductive characteristics of 110 Black case subjects with a diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer between 1971 and 1986 with characteristics of 251 Black population control subjects and 114 Black hospital control subjects. We also compared the prevalence of reproductive factors in 246 Black population control subjects and 4378 White population control subjects and estimated the fraction of Black-White differences in ovarian cancer incidence attributable to racial differences in prevalence of these characteristics. Results: Decreased risks of epithelial ovarian cancer in Black women were associated with parity of four or higher (odds ratio [OR] = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.25-1.1), breast-feeding for 6 months or longer (OR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.36-2.0), and use of oral contraceptives for 6 years or longer (OR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.24-1.6). A greater proportion of Black women (48%) than White women (27%) reported four or more term pregnancies, and Black women (62%) were more likely than White women (53%) to have breast-fed their children. Oral contraceptive use was more common among White women (59%) than Black women (51%). Conclusion: Differences in the prevalence of other factors related to ovarian cancer risk or differences in genetic susceptibility must explain most of the Black-White differences in incidence of ovarian cancer. [J Natl Cancer Inst 85:142-147, 1993]
Ferris, Jacqueline, Room, Robin, and Giesbrecht, Norman
Alcohol Health & Research World. Summer 1993, Vol. 17 Issue 3, p235, 7 p.
International trade, Laws, regulations and rules, Alcoholic beverage industry -- International trade, International trade regulation, and International trade -- Laws, regulations and rules
Public health often conflicts with economic benefit in trade agreements covering alcoholic beverages. In North America, states and provinces tend to bear the brunt of costs. Several alcohol trade and marketing agreements are discussed.