Reproduction and longevity of Podisus restralis (Stil) (Heteroptera:Pentatomidae) females, fed at different intervals were studied in the 'Nucleo de Biotecnologia Aplicada A Agropecuaria' (BIOAGRO), of the'Universidade Federal de Vigosa' (UFV), in Viqosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, at 25 t 2 deg. C, 70 t 1096 R.H. and photophase of 12 hours. Females of P. rostralis were fed with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larva, during 24 hours, every one, two, four, eight and16 days. An inverse linear effect was found between oviposition period, egg batches/female, total number and number of eggs per day with feeding interval. Daily fed females laid more eggs (199.6) while those fed every 16 days showed lowest number of eggs (45.3). Longevity ofP. rostralis was similar in all feeding intervals. Egg oviposition rate was reduced but females of this predator maintained its longevitywhich give then higher chances to maintain themselves in the ecosystem until occurs better conditions of preys. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Yu, F., Stål, P., Thornell, L.-E., and Larsson, L.
Journal of Muscle Research & Cell Motility; Aug2002, Vol. 23 Issue 4, p317-326, 10p
Striated craniofacial and limb muscles differ in their embryological origin, regulatory program during myogenesis, and innervation. In an attempt to explore the effects of these differences on the striated muscle phenotype in humans, the expression of myosin and myosin-associated thick filament proteins were studied at the single fiber level both in the human jaw-closing masseter muscle and in two limb muscles (biceps brachii and quadriceps femoris muscles). In the masseter, unique combinations of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) isoforms were observed at the single fiber level. Compared to the limb muscles, the MyHC isoform expression was more complex in the masseter while the opposite was observed for MyBP-C. In limb muscles, a coordinated expression of three MyHC and three MyBP-C isoforms were observed, i.e., single fibers contained one or two MyHC isoforms, and up to three MyBP-C isoforms. Also, the relative content of the different MyBP-C isoforms correlated with the MyHC isoform expression. In the masseter, on the other hand, up to five different MyHC isoforms could be observed in the same fiber, but only one MyBP-C isoform was identified irrespective MyHC isoform expression. This MyBP-C isoform had a migration rate similar to the slow MyBP-C isoform in limb muscle fibers. In conclusion, a unique myofibrillar protein isoform expression was observed in the human masseter muscle fibers, suggesting significant differences in structural and functional properties between muscle fibers from human masseter and limb muscles. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The effects of secondary metabolites in different Vigna species on the development of Clavigralla tomentosicollis were investigated in an artificial seed system using different fractions of crude pod extracts, while the orientation response of this pod-bug to volatile extracts was studied using a dual-choice olfactometer. Feeding on the neutral fraction extracts, in contrast to the basic and acidic fractions, resulted in significantly higher mortalities, longer total developmental time, and lower growth index of the insects in comparison with controls. All volatile extracts elicited an avoidance reaction by C. tomentosicollis, except the volatile from the susceptible genotype IT84S-2246 which generally attracted as many insects as controls. Extracts from wild Vigna species showed higher activity than those from their cultivated relatives. The present study which has established that most secondary metabolites in cowpea pods were localized in the neutral fraction of the crude extract, could facilitate experiments on the separation and characterization of the toxic factors involved. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]