Ismail, Vardha, Zachariassen, Linda G., Godwin, Annie, Sahakian, Mane, Ellard, Sian, Stals, Karen L., Baple, Emma, Brown, Kate Tatton, Foulds, Nicola, Wheway, Gabrielle, Parker, Matthew O., Lyngby, Signe M., Pedersen, Miriam G., Desir, Julie, Bayat, Allan, Musgaard, Maria, Guille, Matthew, Kristensen, Anders S., and Baralle, Diana
American Journal of Human Genetics. Jul2022, Vol. 109 Issue 7, p1217-1241. 25p.
MISSENSE mutation, GENETIC variation, LIGAND-gated ion channels, NEUROTRANSMITTER receptors, AMPA receptors, and NEURAL development
GRIA1 encodes the GluA1 subunit of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptors, which are ligand-gated ion channels that act as excitatory receptors for the neurotransmitter L -glutamate (Glu). AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are homo- or heteromeric protein complexes with four subunits, each encoded by different genes, GRIA1 to GRIA4. Although GluA1-containing AMPARs have a crucial role in brain function, the human phenotype associated with deleterious GRIA1 sequence variants has not been established. Subjects with de novo missense and nonsense GRIA1 variants were identified through international collaboration. Detailed phenotypic and genetic assessments of the subjects were carried out and the pathogenicity of the variants was evaluated in vitro to characterize changes in AMPAR function and expression. In addition, two Xenopus gria1 CRISPR-Cas9 F 0 models were established to characterize the in vivo consequences. Seven unrelated individuals with rare GRIA1 variants were identified. One individual carried a homozygous nonsense variant (p.Arg377Ter), and six had heterozygous missense variations (p.Arg345Gln, p.Ala636Thr, p.Ile627Thr, and p.Gly745Asp), of which the p.Ala636Thr variant was recurrent in three individuals. The cohort revealed subjects to have a recurrent neurodevelopmental disorder mostly affecting cognition and speech. Functional evaluation of major GluA1-containing AMPAR subtypes carrying the GRIA1 variant mutations showed that three of the four missense variants profoundly perturb receptor function. The homozygous stop-gain variant completely destroys the expression of GluA1-containing AMPARs. The Xenopus gria1 models show transient motor deficits, an intermittent seizure phenotype, and a significant impairment to working memory in mutants. These data support a developmental disorder caused by both heterozygous and homozygous variants in GRIA1 affecting AMPAR function. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
STINKBUGS, BROWN marmorated stink bug, HYMENOPTERA, OVIPARITY, BIOLOGICAL pest control agents, GREENBUG, and HOSTS of parasitoids
• We tested the physiological host ranges of an introduced biocontrol agent (T. basalis) and native parasitoid (T. oenone). • T. basalis attacks and develops in all nine pentatomid taxa we tested. • The native T. oenone attacks and develops in seven out of eight pentatomid species we tested. • Parasitism efficiencies were high for all treatments (>60%). Retrospective host range testing is essential for understanding the physiological host range of introduced biological control agents (BCAs) and updating forecasts of non-target risks. It is especially important to conduct this work if there was no host range testing prior to release of the agent. Trissolcus basalis Wollaston was released in New Zealand in 1949 against green vegetable bug (Nezara viridula [L.]), but host range testing was never undertaken, and subsequent work in the 1960s was only of a qualitative nature and remains incomplete. The host-parasitoid complex between New Zealand pentatomids, T. basalis , and the native pentatomid parasitoid Trissolcus oenone Dodd, is therefore poorly understood. We conducted no-choice oviposition tests between the two resident Trissolcus species and all available New Zealand pentatomid species to characterise the physiological (=fundamental) host ranges of these parasitoids. We present the results of the first retrospective host-specificity study on T. basalis in New Zealand. Our results show T. basalis attacks and develops in all nine pentatomid taxa we exposed it to (including the endemic alpine species Hypsithocus hudsonae Bergroth), while T. oenone attacks and develops in seven out of eight pentatomid species we tested it against (and its capacity to attack H. hudsonae remains unknown). Parasitism efficiencies for all treatments exceeded 60%, while development times were similar for both parasitoids regardless of host. We discuss the importance of physiological host range testing for understanding potential non-target effects. Trissolcus japonicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) was recently approved for release in New Zealand against brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), subject to its potential establishment, and we examine our results in the context of potential competition between introduced parasitoids for non-target species. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Kawagoe, James C, Abrams, Adelaine E, Lourie, Austin P, and Walse, Spencer S
Pest Management Science; Jul2022, Vol. 78 Issue 7, p3090-3097, 8p
STINKBUGS, BROWN marmorated stink bug, CARBON dioxide, FUMIGATION, ATMOSPHERIC carbon dioxide, HEMIPTERA, and DILUTION
BACKGROUND: The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, has caused significant agricultural damage to numerous hosts, so agricultural producers seek to limit its spread. Where established, BMSB can also cause substantial urban and commercial disturbance, as overwintering adults may seek refuge inside dwellings, covered spaces, vehicles, and consignments. Phytosanitary authorities are most concerned with the importation of 'hitchhiking' adults in this refugia, with certain countries requiring a quarantine treatment to mitigate risk. This study explores fumigation with ethyl formate, applied as 16.7% by mass dilution in carbon dioxide, for control of adult BMSB. RESULTS: The induction of diapause, to simulate overwintering physiology, resulted in 2‐ and 3‐fold increases in the tolerance of adults toward this ethyl formate fumigation at 10 ± 0.5 °C (x¯±2s) lasting for 8 and 12 h, respectively. However, a decreased tolerance (0.7‐fold) of diapausing specimens was observed for a 4‐h duration. Diapausing and nondiapausing adult BMSB can be controlled at the probit 9 level if the headspace concentration of ethyl formate, [EF], in the carbon dioxide mixture is maintained ≥7.68 mg L−1 for 12 h at 10 ± 0.5 °C (x¯±2s). If the duration is shortened to 4 h, [EF] must be maintained ≥14.73 mg L−1 over the course of fumigation. CONCLUSION: The toxicity of ethyl formate in this mixture can be distinct for different physiological states of the same life stage, as evidenced by a ca. 3‐fold increase in the Haber's z parameter for adult BMSB when in diapause. Respective to the physiological state of adults, this study identifies how the applied dose and/or treatment duration can be modulated (i.e. tuned) to ensure adequate toxicological efficacy toward BMSB infesting hosts or refuge at temperatures ca. >10 °C. Published 2022. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Leers, Math P. G., Deneer, Ruben, Mostard, Guy J. M., Mostard, Remy L. M., Boer, Arjen-Kars, Scharnhorst, Volkher, Stals, Frans, Kleinveld, Henne A., and van Dam, Dirk W.
PLoS ONE. 6/28/2022, Vol. 17 Issue 6, p1-12. 12p.
MEDICAL personnel, BLOOD testing, COVID-19 testing, SICK leave, and HOSPITALS
Background: COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic leading to exhaustion of the hospital care system. Our health care system has to deal with a high level of sick leave of health care workers (HCWs) with COVID-19 related complaints, in whom an infection with SARS-CoV-2 has to be ruled out before they can return back to work. The aim of the present study is to investigate if the recently described CoLab-algorithm can be used to exclude COVID-19 in a screening setting of HCWs. Methods: In the period from January 2021 till March 2021, HCWs with COVID-19-related complaints were prospectively collected and included in this study. Next to the routinely performed SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR, using a set of naso- and oropharyngeal swab samples, two blood tubes (one EDTA- and one heparin-tube) were drawn for analysing the 10 laboratory parameters required for running the CoLab-algorithm. Results: In total, 726 HCWs with a complete CoLab-laboratory panel were included in this study. In this group, 684 HCWs were tested SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative and 42 cases RT-PCR positive. ROC curve analysis showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.853 (95% CI: 0.801–0.904). At a safe cut-off value for excluding COVID-19 of -6.525, the sensitivity was 100% with a specificity of 34% (95% CI: 21 to 49%). No SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR cases were missed with this cut-off and COVID-19 could be safely ruled out in more than one third of HCWs. Conclusion: The CoLab-score is an easy and reliable algorithm that can be used for screening HCWs with COVID-19 related complaints. A major advantage of this approach is that the results of the score are available within 1 hour after collecting the samples. This results in a faster return to labour process of a large part of the COVID-19 negative HCWs (34%), next to a reduction in RT-PCR tests (reagents and labour costs) that can be saved. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Copyright of Builder (1896-0642) is the property of PWB MEDIA Zdzieblowski sp.j. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Most stink bugs (Pentatomidae) are polyphagous and feed on an array of cultivated and non-cultivated plants. Among the last, weed plants play an important role in their bioecology and pest status, particularly in the Neotropics, in where stink bugs are active during most of the year. In spite of this, the weeds role is, in general, underestimated. In this review article we present and discuss the importance of weed plants present in row crops and pasture lands, affecting stink bugs pests of major commodities in the Neotropics. We surveyed the literature and other sources (unpublished records) on the presence of stink bugs on weed plants. These plants were ranked as hosts (allowing nymph development and/or adult reproduction) or as associated plants (providing some nutrients/water/shelter, but not allowing nymph and/or adult performance). The following stink bug pest species were covered: The green-bellied stink bugs, Diceraeus furcatus (F.) and D. melacanthus Dallas; the Neotropical brown sink bug, Euschistus heros (F.); the brown-winged stink bug, Edessa meditabunda (F.); the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.); the rice stink bugs, Oebalus poecilus (Dallas) and O. ypsilongriseus (De Geer); the red-banded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood); the rice stalk stink bug, Tibraca limbativentris Stål; and the red-shouldered stink bug, Thyanta perditor (F.). The survey showed plants from 16 different families interacting with the 10 species of pest pentatomids analyzed, with the greater number of species of Fabaceae (16+), Poaceae (14+), and Asteraceae (7). Data demonstrated that, in the modern landscape scenario of agricultural areas in the Neotropics, highly polyphagous species, such as N. viridula, tend to suffer greater impact, while the oligophagous species, E. heros, D. furcatus, and D. melacanthus, in contrast, tend to be favored. The management of weed plants through the increase use of herbicides, multiple cropping, and the non-tillage cultivation systems seems to be the major factors influencing the interactions of stink bugs and weeds, changing the population dynamics of pest stink bugs in the Neotropics, and, consequently their pest status. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
STINKBUGS, OLIVE fly, OLIVE, FRUIT development, BROWN marmorated stink bug, INTRODUCED organisms, and LEAFHOPPERS
Olives, Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae), are an emerging commercial crop in Florida; however, potential arthropod threats during olive tree establishment and fruit development remain uncharacterized. Two potential pests that may threaten olive fruit production directly are native and invasive pentatomid stink bugs, which are important pest species of many crops in the southeast, and the invasive olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae),which is not known to be established in Florida. Monitoring for stink bugs during fruit maturation was done using dual funnel tube traps baited with stink bug lures. Yellow sticky card traps baited with food and pheromone lures were used to monitor for the olive fruit fly. Both trap types were placed in tree canopies in 4 North Central Florida olive groves during the anticipated fruit development period for 2 growing seasons. Whereas neither of the invasive species targeted (Halyomorpha halys Stål [Hemiptera: Pentatomidae] or B. oleae) were detected, several other potential pests were identified including brown stink bugs (Euschistus spp.; Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), glassy winged sharpshooters, Homalodisca vitripennis Germar (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), and grasshoppers. No fruit damage attributable to arthropod pests was detected although fruit production was very low with limited samples. These results contribute to awareness of potential pests that may jeopardize olive fruit production and aid in the future studies to develop effective monitoring activities for Florida growers. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]