Edington, Jacqueline, Geekie, Moira, Carter, Robin, Benfield, Lisa, Fisher, Karen, Ball, Madeleine, and Mann, Jim
British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition). 2/7/1987, Vol. 294 Issue 6568, p333-336. 4p. 1 Diagram, 4 Charts.
LOW-fat diet and BLOOD cholesterol
Examines the effect of dietary cholesterol on plasma cholesterol concentration in subjects following low fat diet in Great Britain. Ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids; Comparison of the cholesterol concentration among subjects; Importance of dietary cholesterol for the reduction of saturated fats.
BMJ: British Medical Journal (International Edition). 3/7/92, Vol. 304 Issue 6827, p591. 6p. 4 Black and White Photographs, 1 Diagram.
MEDICINE, FETAL tissue research, POPULATION & the environment, FETAL death, and POLITICAL science
Presents global developments on the political aspects of medicine as of March 1992. Progress on fetal tissue research and transplants in Australia, Europe, and the United States; Increase in human population; Disposal of fetuses and fetus remains.
Scull, Christopher, Ager, Barry, Bourn, Robert, Cameron, Esther, Clogg, P. W., Creighton, John, Edwards, Glynis, Gelling, Margaret, Gilmour, Brian, Harman, Mary, Henry, Pippa, Holgate, Robin, Huntley, Jacqueline P., Johnson, Paul, Linford, Neil, Marlow, C. A., Mortimer, Catherine, Mudd, Andrew, Odenstedt, Bengt, and Page, R. I.
Archaeological Journal. 1992, Vol. 149, p124-281. 158p. 13 Black and White Photographs, 66 Diagrams, 12 Charts, 2 Graphs, 2 Maps.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL excavations, ARCHAEOLOGICAL surveying, ARCHAEOLOGY, INTERMENT, and IRON Age
Geophysical survey and excavation have demonstrated that iron age settlement features and early Anglo-Saxon burials discovered during road construction in 1983 were part o[ an extensive multi-period site, now a Scheduled Ancient Monument. This paper presents the results of the archaeological investigations. The bulk of the report is concerned with the early Anglo-Saxon burials, which included a grave containing a balance, weights and runic inscription. The evidence for late mesolithic, neolithic -- early bronze age, iron age and post-medieval activity is also discussed, and the site is considered in its regional and wider context. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Alcohol Health & Research World. 1993, Vol. 17 Issue 3, p235. 7p. 1 Chart.
BEER, INTERNATIONAL economic relations, and INTERNATIONAL trade
Demonstrates how United States and Canadian controls on the alcohol market affect public health. US-Canadian alcohol control; Public health implications; How the trade agreements (GATT, FTA, NAFTA) work; Trade disputes since 1985; The larger meaning of the disputes; Chronology of the US-Canada beer dispute; Glossary; Summary.
In a national sample of 11 634 Canadians aged 15 years and above, risk curves for harm to six life-areas from one's own drinking and for assault by another drinker rose steadily with the respondent's volume of alcohol consumption. While drinking five or more drinks on an occasion at least once a month substantially raised the risk at a given volume of drinking, the risk rose with volume even among those not regularly drinking five or more drinks. These relationships remained in logistic regressions which controlled for gender, age and educational level. Younger respondents, those without higher education and men reported more harm for a given level of their own drinking although differences by gender disappeared above one-third of one drink per day. Three sets of guidelines for low-risk drinking-two from Canada, and one generally used in Britain-were compared in terms of the proportions of respondents reporting harm from their own drinking among those who had kept within the guideline in the previous 7 days' drinking. More restrictiveness in the guidelines was associated with substantial reductions in reported drinking-related harm. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
TUBERCULOSIS prevention, MEDICAL care of HIV-positive persons, ISONIAZID, PTERIDINES, and DRUG efficacy
Studies the effectiveness of isoniazid versus rifampicin with pyrazinamide for prevention of tuberculosis in HIV-1 positive individuals. Methods for comparing efficacy of the chemoprophylaxis regimens; Findings; Interpretation. INSET: Disease categories.
Brondolo, Elizabeth, Masheb, Robin, Stores, Jacqueline, Stockhammer, Tanya, Tunick, Wendy, Melhado, Elizabeth, Karlin, William A., Schwartz, Joseph, Harburg, Ernest, and Contrada, Richard J.
Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 11/16/98, Vol. 28 Issue 22, p2089-2118. 30p.
PERSONALITY, ANGER, CITY traffic, AFRICAN Americans, AUTOMOBILE drivers, ATTITUDE (Psychology), and PSYCHOLOGICAL burnout
This study evaluates the psychosocial correlates of anger-related traits. Participants include New York City traffic enforcement agents (TEAs), who issue summonses for vehicular and parking violations and are frequently confronted by angry motorists. This sample of TEAs is 53% African American and 57% female. Participants completed surveys at 2 points, 4 months apart, which measured attitudinal, affective, and expressive components of hostility and anger, as well as dimensions of workplace psychosocial response. Results indicate that trait anger-in was positively associated with frequency of conflict, anger intensity, and burnout in cross-sectional analyses; and positively associated with frequency of conflict in prospective analyses. Trait anger was positively associated with an increase in burnout over a 4-month period. These findings provide support for the transactional model of hostility and health and have implications for worksite interventions promoting cardiovascular health. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Browne, Gina, Roberts, Jacqueline, Gafni, Amiram, Byrne, Carolyn, Weir, Robin, Majumdar, Basanti, and Watt, Susan
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. Dec1999, Vol. 5 Issue 4, p367-385. 19p.
COMMUNITY health services, NATIONAL health insurance, and MEDICAL care
A series of 12 studies (five historic cohort and seven randomized trials) examined clients in community settings in Southern Ontario suffering from a variety of chronic physical and mental health conditions. These studies are appraised using a framework for evaluating possible outcomes of economic evaluation. In the 12 studies, sample composition and size varied. Each study was designed to quantify the well-being outcomes and expenditures associated with different community-based approaches to care provided in the context of a system of national health insurance. As a collective, these studies represent increasing methodological rigour. Multiple-perspective client well-being outcome measures were used. In two studies, caregiver burden also was analysed. A common approach to quantification and evaluation of expenditures for service consumption was used in all 12 studies. The nature of community-based health services (health vs. disease care orientation) was found to have direct and measurable impact on total expenditures for health service utilization and client well-being outcomes. In most cases, a recurring pattern of equal or better client outcomes, yet lower expenditures for use of community based health services, was associated with well-integrated health oriented services. Integrated services aimed at factors which determine health are superior when compared to individual, fragmented, disease oriented, and focused approaches to care. The main lessons from the 12 studies are that it is as or more effective and as or less expensive to offer complete, proactive, community health services to persons living with chronic circumstance than to provide focused, on-demand, piecemeal services. Complete services would have a psychosocial and mental health focus included with the physical care approach. Furthermore, people with coexisting risk factors (age, living arrangements, mental distress and problem-solving ability) are the ones who most benefit at lower expense... [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, or keratosis palmoplantaris with periodontopathia (PLS, MIM 245000), is an autosomal recessive disorder that is mainly ascertained by dentists because of the severe periodontitis that afflicts patients. Both the deciduous and permanent dentitions are affected, resulting in premature tooth loss. Palmoplantar keratosis, varying from mild psoriasiform scaly skin to overt hyperkeratosis, typically develops within the first three years of life. Keratosis also affects other sites such as elbows and knees. Most PLS patients display both periodontitis and hyperkeratosis. Some patients have only palmoplantar keratosis or periodontitis, and in rare individuals the periodontitis is mild and of late onset. The PLS locus has been mapped to chromosome 11q14-q21 (refs 7-9). Using homozygosity mapping in eight small consanguineous families, we have narrowed the candidate region to a 1.2-cM interval between DllS4082 and D11S931. The gene (CTSC) encoding the lysosomal protease cathepsin C (or dipeptidyl aminopeptidase I) lies within this interval. We defined the genomic structure of CTSC and found mutations in all eight families. In two of these families we used a functional assay to demonstrate an almost total loss of cathepsin C activity in PLS patients and reduced activity in obligate carriers. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Schmidt, Silke, Barcellos, Lisa F., DeSombre, Karen, Rimmler, Jacqueline B., Lincoln, Robin R., Bucher, Patricia, Saunders, Ann M., Lai, Eric, Martin, Eden R., Vance, Jeffery M., Oksenberg, Jorge R., Hauser, Stephen L., Pericak-Vance, Margaret A., and Haines, Jonathan L.
American Journal of Human Genetics. Mar2002, Vol. 70 Issue 3, p708. 10p.
GENETICS of multiple sclerosis, APOLIPOPROTEIN E, GENETIC polymorphisms, and GENETICS of disease susceptibility
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, with a complex etiology that includes a strong genetic component. The contribution of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has been established in numerous genetic linkage and association studies. In addition to the MHC, the chromosome 19q13 region surrounding the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene has shown consistent evidence of involvement in MS when family-based analyses were conducted. Furthermore, several clinical reports have suggested that the APOE-4 allele may be associated with more-severe disease and faster progression of disability. To thoroughly examine the role of APOE in MS, we genotyped its functional alleles, as well as seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located primarily within 13 kb of APOE, in a data set of 398 families. Using family-based association analysis, we found statistically significant evidence that an SNP haplotype near APOE is associated with MS susceptibility (P = .005 ). An analysis of disease progression in 614 patients with MS from 379 families indicated that APOE-4 carriers are more likely to be affected with severe disease (P = .03 ), whereas a higher proportion of APOE-2 carriers exhibit a mild disease course (P = .02 ). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Novak, Jacqueline, Ramirez, Rolando J.J., Gandley, Robin E., Sherwood, O. David, and Conrad, Kirk P.
American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative & Comparative Physiology. Aug2002, Vol. 52 Issue 2, pR349. 7p. 5 Graphs.
RELAXIN, RAT physiology, RENAL artery, MYOGENESIS, and MESENTERIC artery
Presents information on a study which investigated whether myogenic reactivity of small renal and mesenteric arteries is reduced in relaxin-treated rats. Methodology; Impact of relaxin on myogenic reactivity; Link between denudation of endothelium and myogenic reactivity; Role of nitric oxide in the reduction of myogenic activity.
The condensation reaction between γ-unsubstituted pyrylium salts and carbanions of Fischer-type carbene complexes allowed the synthesis of new γ-methylenepyran carbene complexes. NMR data, single crystal X-ray analysis, and DFT calculations suggest that these complexes have a partial pyrylium character due to the π electron-accepting ability of the carbenic fragment and to the electron-releasing properties of the methylenepyran part. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Atkinson, Jacqueline M, Wells, Frank O, Oliver, James, Webb, David J, Patole, Sanjay, Travadi, Javeed, von Kaehne, Peter, Jones, Graham A, Mathy, Robin M, Rushton, D Hugh, Dover, Robin, Sainsbury, Anthony W, Norris, Michael J, Gilkes, Jeremy J H, Ramsay, Ian D, Navein, John F, Simey, Piers W, Skelton, Dawn, and Dinan, Susie
BMJ: British Medical Journal (International Edition). 11/16/2002, Vol. 325 Issue 7373, p1174. 4p. 1 Chart, 1 Graph.
LETTERS to the editor, MEDICAL personnel, CLINICAL medicine, and PHYSICIANS' correspondence
Presents letters to the editor and correspondence between medical practitioners as of November 16, 2002. Undisclosed payments in research; Use of sildenafil for so-called blue babies; Making the best of health advocates and interpreters; Homosexual-related legislation and suicidal intent among sexual minority groups; Iron deficiency in women's health; Others.
Lokman, B. Christien, Joosten, Vivi, Hovenkamp, Jacqueline, Gouka, Robin J., Verrips, C. Theo, and van den Hondel, Cees A.M.J.J.
Journal of Biotechnology. Jun2003, Vol. 103 Issue 2, p183. 8p.
XYLANASES and ASPERGILLUS
The heterologous production of Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP) was analysed in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus awamori under control of the inducible endoxylanase promoter. Secretion of active ARP was achieved up to 800 mg l−1 in shake flask cultures. Western blot analysis showed that an rARP product of the correct molecular weight was produced. In contrast to several other studies about heterologous production of heme containing peroxidases, our results suggest that in A. awamori no heme limitation exists during overproduction of ARP. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Reid, Michael A., Flores-Otero, Jacqueline, and Davis, Robin L.
Journal of Neuroscience. 1/21/2004, Vol. 24 Issue 3, p733-742. 10p. 4 Color Photographs, 1 Black and White Photograph, 5 Graphs.
NEURONS, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, SENSORY receptors, HAIR cells, and COCHLEA
Type I and type II spiral ganglion neurons convey auditory information from the sensory receptors in the cochlea to the CNS. The numerous type I neurons have been extensively characterized, but the small population of type II neurons with their unmyelinated axons are undetectable with most recording methods. Despite the paucity of information about the type II neurons, it is clear that they must have a significant role in sound processing because they innervate the large number of outer hair cells that are critical for maintaining normal responses to stimuli. To elucidate the function of type II neurons, we have developed an approach for studying their electrophysiological features in vitro. Type II neurons obtained from postnatal day 6-7 mice displayed distinctly different firing properties than type I neurons. They showed slower accommodation, lower action potential thresholds, and more prolonged responses to depolarizing current injection than the type I neurons. These differences were most evident in neurons from the basal, high-frequency region of the cochlea. The basal type I neurons displayed uniformly fast firing features, whereas the basal type II neurons showed particularly slow accommodation and responses to depolarization. Interestingly, neurons from the apical, low-frequency region of the cochlea showed the opposite trend. These data suggest that the type I and type II neurons have specialized electrophysiological characteristics tailored to their different roles in auditory signal processing. In particular, the type II neuron properties are consistent with cells in other sensory systems that receive convergent synaptic input for high-sensitivity stimulus detection. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Monkman, Shelley L, Andersen, Chad C, Nahmias, Claude, Ghaffer, Hasan, Bourgeois, Jacqueline M, Roberts, Robin S, Schmidt, Barbara, and Kirpalani, Haresh M
Critical Care Medicine. Dec2004, Vol. 32 Issue 12, p2471-2475. 5p.
Objectives: To compare the effects of low vs. high tidal volume (Vt) with three positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) strategies on activated neutrophil influx into the lung.Design: Prospective, randomized controlled animal study.Setting: Animal laboratory in a university hospital.Subjects: Newborn piglets.Interventions: Surfactant-depleted piglets were randomized in littermate pairs; to PEEP of either 0 (zero end-expiratory pressure [ZEEP]; n = 6), 8 cm H2O (PEEP 8; n = 5), or 1 cm H2O above the lower inflection point (LIP) (PEEP>LIP; n = 6). Within each pair piglets were randomized to a low VT (5-7 mL/kg) or high VT strategy (17-19 mL/kg). After 4 hrs of mechanical ventilation, 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) was injected and positron emission tomography scanning was performed.Measurements and Main Results: VT and PEEP changes on influx constants of 18FDG were assessed by analysis of variance. A within-litter comparison of Vt was nonsignificant (p = .50). A between-litter comparison, ordered in linear trend rank, from ZEEP, to PEEP 8, to PEEP>LIP, showed a strong effect of PEEP on influx constant (p = .019).Conclusions: PEEP set above the LIP on the inspiratory limb of the pressure-volume curve affords a stronger lung protection than VT strategy. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]