Edington, Jacqueline, Geekie, Moira, Carter, Robin, Benfield, Lisa, Fisher, Karen, Ball, Madeleine, and Mann, Jim
British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition). 2/7/1987, Vol. 294 Issue 6568, p333-336. 4p. 1 Diagram, 4 Charts.
LOW-fat diet and BLOOD cholesterol
Examines the effect of dietary cholesterol on plasma cholesterol concentration in subjects following low fat diet in Great Britain. Ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids; Comparison of the cholesterol concentration among subjects; Importance of dietary cholesterol for the reduction of saturated fats.
Scull, Christopher, Ager, Barry, Bourn, Robert, Cameron, Esther, Clogg, P. W., Creighton, John, Edwards, Glynis, Gelling, Margaret, Gilmour, Brian, Harman, Mary, Henry, Pippa, Holgate, Robin, Huntley, Jacqueline P., Johnson, Paul, Linford, Neil, Marlow, C. A., Mortimer, Catherine, Mudd, Andrew, Odenstedt, Bengt, and Page, R. I.
Archaeological Journal. 1992, Vol. 149, p124-281. 158p. 13 Black and White Photographs, 66 Diagrams, 12 Charts, 2 Graphs, 2 Maps.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL excavations, ARCHAEOLOGICAL surveying, ARCHAEOLOGY, INTERMENT, and IRON Age
Geophysical survey and excavation have demonstrated that iron age settlement features and early Anglo-Saxon burials discovered during road construction in 1983 were part o[ an extensive multi-period site, now a Scheduled Ancient Monument. This paper presents the results of the archaeological investigations. The bulk of the report is concerned with the early Anglo-Saxon burials, which included a grave containing a balance, weights and runic inscription. The evidence for late mesolithic, neolithic -- early bronze age, iron age and post-medieval activity is also discussed, and the site is considered in its regional and wider context. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Alcohol Health & Research World. 1993, Vol. 17 Issue 3, p235. 7p. 1 Chart.
BEER, INTERNATIONAL economic relations, and INTERNATIONAL trade
Demonstrates how United States and Canadian controls on the alcohol market affect public health. US-Canadian alcohol control; Public health implications; How the trade agreements (GATT, FTA, NAFTA) work; Trade disputes since 1985; The larger meaning of the disputes; Chronology of the US-Canada beer dispute; Glossary; Summary.
Adaptation, Psychological, Adult, Chronic Disease, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Female, Humans, Male, Regression Analysis, Social Support, Socioeconomic Factors, Surveys and Questionnaires, Life Change Events, Pain psychology, and Quality of Life
Cognitive appraisal processes or the meaning a person gives a stressful event are believed to mediate an individual's reaction to an event and, as such, have been demonstrated to explain adjustment to illness. The purpose of this paper is to test this cognitive as well as other social and illness variables to explain the variance in a person's adjustment to chronic pain. Two hundred and twenty-two patients, who were randomly selected from an original sample of referrals to a chronic pain specialty clinic, completed a questionnaire by telephone interview or mail. The questionnaire consisted of psychosocial scales (PAIS-SR; Social Support) and cognitions including the Meaning of Illness Questionnaire (MIQ). Fifty-six percent of the sample had poor psychosocial adjustment to their pain problem. Seventy percent of the variance in adjustment was explained by social and cognitive variables which corroborates their importance. The MIQ 5-factor structure was supported and provides credible evidence of the role of cognitions in differentiating between the poor and well adjusted.
In a national sample of 11 634 Canadians aged 15 years and above, risk curves for harm to six life-areas from one's own drinking and for assault by another drinker rose steadily with the respondent's volume of alcohol consumption. While drinking five or more drinks on an occasion at least once a month substantially raised the risk at a given volume of drinking, the risk rose with volume even among those not regularly drinking five or more drinks. These relationships remained in logistic regressions which controlled for gender, age and educational level. Younger respondents, those without higher education and men reported more harm for a given level of their own drinking although differences by gender disappeared above one-third of one drink per day. Three sets of guidelines for low-risk drinking-two from Canada, and one generally used in Britain-were compared in terms of the proportions of respondents reporting harm from their own drinking among those who had kept within the guideline in the previous 7 days' drinking. More restrictiveness in the guidelines was associated with substantial reductions in reported drinking-related harm. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
TUBERCULOSIS prevention, MEDICAL care of HIV-positive persons, ISONIAZID, PTERIDINES, and DRUG efficacy
Studies the effectiveness of isoniazid versus rifampicin with pyrazinamide for prevention of tuberculosis in HIV-1 positive individuals. Methods for comparing efficacy of the chemoprophylaxis regimens; Findings; Interpretation. INSET: Disease categories.
Brondolo, Elizabeth, Masheb, Robin, Stores, Jacqueline, Stockhammer, Tanya, Tunick, Wendy, Melhado, Elizabeth, Karlin, William A., Schwartz, Joseph, Harburg, Ernest, and Contrada, Richard J.
Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 11/16/98, Vol. 28 Issue 22, p2089-2118. 30p.
PERSONALITY, ANGER, CITY traffic, AFRICAN Americans, AUTOMOBILE drivers, ATTITUDE (Psychology), and PSYCHOLOGICAL burnout
This study evaluates the psychosocial correlates of anger-related traits. Participants include New York City traffic enforcement agents (TEAs), who issue summonses for vehicular and parking violations and are frequently confronted by angry motorists. This sample of TEAs is 53% African American and 57% female. Participants completed surveys at 2 points, 4 months apart, which measured attitudinal, affective, and expressive components of hostility and anger, as well as dimensions of workplace psychosocial response. Results indicate that trait anger-in was positively associated with frequency of conflict, anger intensity, and burnout in cross-sectional analyses; and positively associated with frequency of conflict in prospective analyses. Trait anger was positively associated with an increase in burnout over a 4-month period. These findings provide support for the transactional model of hostility and health and have implications for worksite interventions promoting cardiovascular health. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
LETTERS to the editor, DAY trading (Securities), BUBBLE gum, ECONOMICS, and ECONOMIC policy
Several letters to the editor are presented in response to articles in previous issues including "When the Bubble Bursts," in the January 30, 1999 issue, "Blame It on the Bubbles," in the January 23, 1999 issue, and "A Nervous Shuffle in Malaysia," in the January 16, 1999 issue.
Browne, Gina, Roberts, Jacqueline, Gafni, Amiram, Byrne, Carolyn, Weir, Robin, Majumdar, Basanti, and Watt, Susan
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. Dec1999, Vol. 5 Issue 4, p367-385. 19p.
COMMUNITY health services, NATIONAL health insurance, and MEDICAL care
A series of 12 studies (five historic cohort and seven randomized trials) examined clients in community settings in Southern Ontario suffering from a variety of chronic physical and mental health conditions. These studies are appraised using a framework for evaluating possible outcomes of economic evaluation. In the 12 studies, sample composition and size varied. Each study was designed to quantify the well-being outcomes and expenditures associated with different community-based approaches to care provided in the context of a system of national health insurance. As a collective, these studies represent increasing methodological rigour. Multiple-perspective client well-being outcome measures were used. In two studies, caregiver burden also was analysed. A common approach to quantification and evaluation of expenditures for service consumption was used in all 12 studies. The nature of community-based health services (health vs. disease care orientation) was found to have direct and measurable impact on total expenditures for health service utilization and client well-being outcomes. In most cases, a recurring pattern of equal or better client outcomes, yet lower expenditures for use of community based health services, was associated with well-integrated health oriented services. Integrated services aimed at factors which determine health are superior when compared to individual, fragmented, disease oriented, and focused approaches to care. The main lessons from the 12 studies are that it is as or more effective and as or less expensive to offer complete, proactive, community health services to persons living with chronic circumstance than to provide focused, on-demand, piecemeal services. Complete services would have a psychosocial and mental health focus included with the physical care approach. Furthermore, people with coexisting risk factors (age, living arrangements, mental distress and problem-solving ability) are the ones who most benefit at lower expense... [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]