E-Learning and Digital Media, v15 n2 p67-92 Mar 2018. 26 pp.
Educational Technology, Technology Uses in Education, Instructional Design, Games, Statistical Analysis, Questionnaires, Behavior, Policy, Individual Characteristics, Attitude Measures, Preferences, Likert Scales, Foreign Countries, Adults, United States, United Kingdom, Italy, Canada, Germany, Netherlands, Denmark, Switzerland, Sweden, India, Greece, Hungary, France, Malaysia, and Norway
This article investigates the phenomenon of open and participative development (e.g. beta testing, Kickstarter projects)--i.e. extended prototyping--in digital entertainment as a potential source of insights for instructional interventions. Despite the increasing popularity of this practice and the potential implications for educators and instructional designers, little efforts have been done in enlightening the topic. This study aims to address this lack by staging a bridge between Instructional Design and Game Design with an empirical inquiry. N:130 subjects (beta testers and Steam Early Access and Kickstarter users) were recruited with a quantitative questionnaire about their contribution to open development instances. Behavioral patterns, effective policies and managements, and subjective profiles and opinions were gathered and tied to instructional design models and concepts. Results point to successful techniques in designing and applying such a process, while mistakes and unproductive tactics are highlighted as well. To summarize, instruction can take advantage of an increased participation of targeted audiences/learners to its development phases. Benefits span transparency, engagement, and commitment. However, poor communication and incoherence between testing and final product may weaken the overall outcome.
American Journal of Evaluation, v36 n3 p358-374 Sep 2015. 17 pp.
Case Studies, Evaluation Research, Evaluation, Program Design, Program Development, Program Descriptions, Program Implementation, Innovation, Educational Theories, Preservice Teacher Education, Best Practices, Formative Evaluation, Transcripts (Written Records), Meetings, Electronic Mail, Decision Making, Needs Assessment, Foreign Countries, and Canada
This article contributes to research on evaluation by examining the capacity and contribution of developmental evaluation for innovating. This case study describes the "preformative development" of an educational program (from conceptualization to pilot implementation) and analyzes the processes of innovation within a developmental evaluation framework. Developmental evaluation enhanced innovation by (a) identifying and infusing data primarily within an "informing" process toward resolving the uncertainty associated with innovation and (b) facilitating program cocreation between the clients and the developmental evaluator. Analysis into the demands of innovation revealed the pervasiveness of uncertainty throughout development and how the rendering of evaluative data helped resolve uncertainty and propelled development forward. Developmental evaluation enabled a nonlinear, coevolutionary program development process that centered on six foci--definition, delineation, collaboration, prototyping, illumination, and reality testing. This article concludes by encouraging evaluators to understand the demands of innovation and the value of design thinking when innovating.
Cober, Rebecca, Tan, Esther, Slotta, Jim, So, Hyo-Jeong, and Könings, Karen D.
Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, v43 n2 p203-228 Mar 2015. 26 pp.
Technology Uses in Education, Educational Technology, Instructional Design, Case Studies, Computer Software, Interviews, Astronomy, Curriculum Development, Feedback (Response), Teacher Attitudes, Teacher Role, Learning Activities, Cultural Influences, Teacher Participation, Cooperative Planning, Reflection, Foreign Countries, Canada, and Singapore
Teachers are not typically involved as participatory designers in the design of technology-enhanced learning environments. As they have unique and valuable perspectives on the role of technology in education, it is of utmost importance to engage them in a participatory design process. Adopting a case study methodology, we aim to reveal in what ways teachers work as participatory designers and define conditions that support teachers in that. Two initiatives of participatory design in Canada and Singapore were investigated. Design materials, transcripts of design meetings, and interviews with teachers were qualitatively analyzed. Case study 1 (Canada) showed that two teachers participating in software design for an astronomy curriculum contributed by suggesting new design features, introducing pedagogical requirements, and providing feedback on prototypes or design ideas. It appeared essential that teachers feel that their ideas were valued and respected in the entire process. In case study 2 (Singapore), six teachers contributed to the design of a mobile learning trail through: Theorizing and bridging knowledge building principles, collaborative prototyping, contextual inquiry of activity relevance and activity execution, and collaborative evaluation of technology integration. Teachers valued case study discussions with similar cultural contexts and visiting the learning site to design with contextual knowledge. From our case studies, it can be concluded that teachers contribute to the design processes by engaging in theoretical discussion, active participation in a design partnership, reflection about pedagogy and practice, and experimenting with enactment. Conditions that support teachers include support in emergent processes and an atmosphere of trust and inclusion.
Skulmoski, Gregory J., Hartman, Francis T., and Krahn, Jennifer
Journal of Information Technology Education, v6 p1-21 2007. 21 pp.
Feedback (Response), Delphi Technique, Graduate Students, Research Projects, Doctoral Dissertations, Information Systems, Information Technology, Information Science Education, Student Research, Doctoral Programs, Masters Programs, Foreign Countries, Data Analysis, Research Methodology, Questionnaires, Research Design, and Canada
The Delphi method is an attractive method for graduate students completing masters and PhD level research. It is a flexible research technique that has been successfully used in our program at the University of Calgary to explore new concepts within and outside of the information systems body of knowledge. The Delphi method is an iterative process to collect and distill the anonymous judgments of experts using a series of data collection and analysis techniques interspersed with feedback. The Delphi method is well suited as a research instrument when there is incomplete knowledge about a problem or phenomenon; however it is not a method for all types of IS research questions. The Delphi method works especially well when the goal is to improve our understanding of problems, opportunities, solutions, or to develop forecasts. In this paper, we provide a brief background of the Classical Delphi followed by a presentation of how it has evolved into a flexible research method appropriate for a wide variety of IS research projects, such as determining the criteria for IS prototyping decisions, ranking technology management issues in new product development projects, and developing a descriptive framework of knowledge manipulation activities. To illustrate the method's flexibility, we summarize distinctive non-IS, IS, and graduate studies Delphi research projects. We end by discussing what we have learned from using the Delphi method in our own research regarding this method's design factors and how it may be applied to those conducting graduate studies research: i) methodological choices such as a qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods approach; ii) initial question degree of focus whether it be broad or narrowly focused; iii) expertise criteria such as technical knowledge and experience, capacity and willingness to participate, sufficient time, and communication skills; vi) number of participants in the heterogeneous or homogeneous sample, v) number of Delphi rounds varying from one to 6, vi) mode of interaction such as through email, online surveys or groupware, vii) methodological rigor and a research audit trail, viii) results analysis, ix) further verification through triangulation or with another sample, and x) publishing of the results. We include an extensive bibliography and an appendix with a wide-ranging list of dissertations that have used the Delphi method (including brief research description, number of rounds and sample size). The Delphi method is a flexible, effective and efficient research method that can be successful used by IS graduate students to answer research questions in information systems and to rigorously advance the IS body of knowledge. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)
Outlines the teaching environment that led to the conception of a digital tutor for teaching the concepts and techniques of geographic information systems (GIS). Explains the design and prototyping, introduces the tutor's capabilities, and shares insights gained from using this teaching aid. Includes teachers' and students' responses. (MJP)
Artificial Intelligence, Computer Assisted Instruction, Computer Simulation, Foreign Countries, Higher Education, Industrial Education, Institutional Cooperation, Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Professional Training, Programmed Instructional Materials, Programmed Tutoring, Research and Development, Training Methods, and Canada
Safari is a cooperative project involving four Quebec universities, two industrial partners (Virtual Prototypes, Inc., providing the VAPS software package, and Novasys, Inc., a consulting firm specializing in artificial intelligence and training), and government. VAPS (Virtual Applications Prototyping System) is a commercial interface-building and simulation system. The main objective of Safari is to develop a methodology and an environment for the creation of tutoring systems to be used in professional training. The focus is on teaching mostly procedural knowledge concerning the operation of devices such as medical instruments, manufacturing robots, consumer appliances, control instruments, aeronautical instruments, etc. The basic idea is to add a tutoring component on top of device models (microworlds) built in VAPS. This permits the use of models written in VAPS ("virtual instruments"), instead of the real, expensive devices, for training and practice. The distinguishing features of the Safari environment are that: (1) an attempt is made to represent knowledge at two levels: at the physical level corresponding to a simulated device, and the plan level; (2) tutoring is based on four instructional modes: demonstration, exploration, coaching, and critiquing; and (3) within every mode the development of progressively more complex prototypes is foreseen, and tutoring in every mode involves the two levels of knowledge representation. The evolution of prototypes can be roughly divided into three phases according to the complexity of the knowledge structures involved, each of which is outlined. Safari prototyping of the Flo-Gard 6201 Volumetric infusion pump is descried as an example. Three figures illustrate concepts and the infusion pump prototype. (MAS)