In this work, a cyber-physical prototyping and testing framework to enable the rapid development of UAVs is conceived and demonstrated. The UAV Development Framework is an extension of the typical iterative engineering design and development process, specifically applied to the rapid development of UAVs. Unlike other development frameworks in the literature, the presented framework allows for iteration throughout the entire development process from design to construction, using a mixture of simulated and real-life testing as well as cross-aircraft development. The framework presented includes low- and high-order methods and tools that can be applied to a broad range of fixed-wing UAVs and can either be combined and executed simultaneously or be executed sequentially. As part of this work, seven novel and enhanced methods and tools were developed that apply to fixed-wing UAVs in the areas of: flight testing, measurement, modeling and emulation, and optimization. A demonstration of the framework to quickly develop an unmanned aircraft for agricultural field surveillance is presented.