With the development of computer-aided surgery and rapid prototyping via 3D printing technology, digital surgery has rapidly advanced in clinical practice, especially in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. 3D printing technology has been applied to the functional restoration and reconstruction of the jawbone. Before surgery, a 3D digital model is constructed through software to plan the scope of the osteotomy, shape the bone graft and plan the placement of the implant. Additionally, 3D models of personalized surgical instrument guides are printed prior to surgery. With these 3D-printed models and guides, accurate excision of the jaw tumor, accurate placement of the grafted bone and precise placement of implants can be achieved during surgery. Postoperative evaluation of accuracy and function shows that 3D printing technology can aid in achieving the biomechanical goals of simultaneous implant placement in jaw reconstruction, and in combination with dental implant restoration, the technology can improve patients' postoperative occlusal and masticatory functions. Nevertheless, 3D printing technology still has limitations, such as time-consuming preparation before surgery. In the future, further development of 3D printing technology, optimization of surgical plans, and alternative biological materials are needed. Based on domestic and foreign literature and our research results, we have reviewed the process and clinical application prospects of jaw reconstruction via 3D printing technology to provide a reference for oral and maxillofacial surgeons.