Background: Shoulder dislocations are common occurrences, yet there are few simulation devices to train medical personnel on how to reduce these dislocations. Reductions require a familiarity with the shoulder and a nuanced motion against strong muscle tension. The goal of this work is to describe the design of an easily replicated, low-cost simulator for training shoulder reductions.
Materials and Methods: An iterative, stepwise engineering design process was used to design and implement ReducTrain. A needs analysis with clinical experts led to the selection of the traction-countertraction and external rotation methods as educationally relevant techniques to include. A set of design requirements and acceptance criteria was established that considered durability, assembly time, and cost. An iterative prototyping development process was used to meet the acceptance criteria. Testing protocols for each design requirement are also presented. Step-by-step instructions are provided to allow the replication of ReducTrain from easily sourced materials, including plywood, resistance bands, dowels, and various fasteners, as well as a 3D-printed shoulder model, whose printable file is included at a link in the Additional file 1: Appendix.
Results: A description of the final model is given. The total cost for all materials for one ReducTrain model is under US $200, and it takes about 3 h and 20 min to assemble. Based on repetitive testing, the device should not see any noticeable changes in durability after 1000 uses but may exhibit some changes in resistance band strength after 2000 uses.
Discussion: The ReducTrain device fills a gap in emergency medicine and orthopedic simulation. Its wide variety of uses points to its utility in several instructional formats. With the rise of makerspaces and public workshops, the construction of the device can be easily completed. While the device has some limitations, its robust design allows for simple upkeep and a customizable training experience.
Conclusion: A simplified anatomical design allows for the ReducTrain model to serve as a viable training device for shoulder reductions.
(© 2023. The Author(s).)