Obesity increases the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), potentially through proteins secreted by adipose tissue (AT) that affect atrial electrical and structural remodeling. We aim to give a comprehensive overview of circulating AT proteins involved in inflammation and fibrosis, that are associated with prevalent AF (paroxysmal or persistent) and the risk on developing new-onset AF. These include adipokines, defined as proteins enriched in AT as adiponectin, but also proteins less specific to AT. We systematically performed an explorative search for studies reporting associations between proteins secreted from cells residing in the AT and AF, and additionally assessed the effect of obesity on these proteins by a secondary search. The AT proteins involved in inflammation were mostly increased in patients with prevalent and new-onset AF, and with obesity, while the AT enriched adipokines were mostly not associated with AF. This review provides insight into circulating adipose tissue proteins involved in AF substrate formation.
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